Download Living with the wolf PDF

TitleLiving with the wolf
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.2 MB
Total Pages111
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Living with the wolf

A Luhmannian perspective on the human-wolf

conflict in Redes Natural Park, Spain



Isabeau Ottolini

April 2018

MSc Thesis CPT-81330

Page 2

i | P a g e





Living with the wolf

A Luhmannian perspective on the human-wolf conflict in Redes

Natural Park, Spain



Written by:

Isabeau Romaine Ottolini

Registration number: 920204-633-010

Contact: [email protected]

Submission date: 23th of April, 2018



Written for :

Wageningen University and Research

Master Development and Rural Innovation

Strategic Communication Chair Group

Course code: CPT-81330



Supervisors:

Arjaan Pellis & Dr.ir. Jasper de Vries



Examiner:

Dr. ir. JM (Annemarie) van Paassen



Image title page: Patricia Ropohl. The Iberian wolf in the ever-changing environment

mailto:[email protected]

Page 55

43 | P a g e



to exist on what has caused such changes, and as such, it is hard to find actor(s) whom can be

held responsible for the changes. So far, conceptualising the human-wolf conflict appears to be

a challenging endeavour, and what emerges is not a sole definition that unmistakably delineates

what the conflict is. Instead, as one advances through the field, more and more aspects emerge,

which reveal the multiplicity of topics related to the conflict. In the next section reference is

made to the role of politics and the media in the conflict, as aspects that further complicate

understanding what the human-wolf conflict in Redes is.

5.2.5. Politics, the media and the conflict

Oftentimes a great deal of the conflict is attributed to the meddling of politicians and the use

of the wolf conflict discourse for political ends e.g. i.4, i.28. As several interviewees explain, it

seems the conflict worsens when there are major events occurring at political level, such as

discussions on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), whereby the wolf is pointed out as the

biggest problem of the rural world, while at the same time covering up other issues (e.g. unfair

economic competition) e.g. O.4, i.27, i.28. This whilst many believe the wolf is by far not the biggest

nor most urgent issue ganaderos face. As one local inhabitant tells, “the wolf is the top of the

iceberg, an additional problem, but the rural world has many more problems” i.17. Moreover,

a politician tells the wolf issue is used as political propaganda to gain votes from the rural

communities i.28, as an interviewee illustrates by claiming to have heard a ganadero mention to

“vote whoever says to kill all wolves and gives most subventions” i.6. Mainly the right-wing

political parties are pointed out as involved in lobbying and increasing the wolf problem, by

meeting with ganaderos and hunters; promising to cull more wolves; organizing frequent press

releases; posing questions in parliamentary meetings; summoning ganaderos to report all

livestock deaths as caused by the wolf; and criticizing other political parties e.g. i.4, i.28, i.24. For

example, during the wolf conference several politicians from opposing parties said that if they

were governing they would ensure more wolfs being culled, to the dismay of other political

parties who disregard it as a solution O.4. Altogether, it must also be said that many respondents

mention Spanish politics lack a culture of dialogue and reaching agreements e.g. i.10, i.22, i.24.

On the whole, it appears the Asturian government “is between two fires”: on one hand is the

environmentalist and/or urban population, which idealizes the wolf as an icon of wild nature,

while on the other hand the ganaderos and /or rural population point out the wolf as their biggest

enemy i.23. As a government official points out, this confrontation between strongly polarized

groups is happening all around the rural world i.27, and with the government being in the middle,

Page 56

44 | P a g e



it will always be criticized for whatever actions taken (or not), even if a balance between the

interests of different actors is attempted to be achieved i.7.

Another actor that is also seen as standing in the middle and receives criticism from both sides

is the media. The media is held responsible for worsening the conflict, oftentimes through

sensationalistic stories e.g.i.3, i.8, i.16. Some believe that if the wolf topic would not appear so much

in the media it would not be such a problem. One ex-ranger relates it to the current issues of

Catalan Independence and the use of sensationalistic photos: “all day long talking about the

wolf, about Catalunya, and people turn something small into something big […]. But as they

are all day long putting photos of a wolf hanging from a tree and then a photo of a dead flock

of sheep […], you create controversy”i.8 (see Image 19 and Image 20)


Image 19. Dead sheep found near Orlé, in Redes. Source: El

Comercio (Varela, 2017)


Image 20. Dead wolf hanging from a

signpost in Teverga, Asturias. Source:

FAPAS, 2017

The media is blamed, often by nature conservationists, for only giving voice to the ganaderos

e.g. i.3, i.6, O.4, and leaving out other involved sectors i.3. Whilst it might be so that news comes

more often from ganaderos narrating the negative side of the wolf, those who have more

positive stories to tell, such as nature conservationists, lack the initiative to make it heard

through traditional media such as the newspaper or the television i.24. Moreover, a biologist

explains the government takes little initiative in using the media as a way to adequately inform

people about the wolf conflict or to rectify false information before it starts gaining a life of its

own and increasing the conflict i.3. Additionally, the media is criticized for the generalized lack

of in-depth knowledge on the topic, as often lay people write about it, besides the incapacity to

reflect upon the bigger picture of what is actually going on, therefore some propose news must

Page 110

98 | P a g e



http://www.redestatal.com/2979-2

Redpath, S., Bhatia, S., & Young, J. (2015). Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human wildlife

conflict. Oryx, 49(2), 222 225. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605314000799

Redpath, S., Linnell, J., Festa-

Milner- - collaborative approaches to

predator conservation. Biological Reviews, 92(4), 2157 2163.

https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12326

Gutiérrez, R. J. (2013). Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends in

Ecology & Evolution, 28(2), 100 109. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TREE.2012.08.021

Roberts, R. (2011). Palestinians in Lebanon: Refugees Living with Long-Term Displacement.

Journal of Refugee Studies, 24(2), 416 417. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fer015

Romero, L. (2018). Despoblación y Abandono de la España Rural. El Imposible Vencido.

Tirant lo Blanch.

Ruiz, M. (2018, January 24). España indirecta Relato de una España inventada: cómo

Televisión Española crea una visión bucólica y adulterada de la realidad rural. El Salto.

Retrieved from https://www.elsaltodiario.com/medios/segovia-rural-tve-espana-directo-

vision-indirecta

Rural, R. E. de D. (2018, March 23). La Comisión de Agricultura del Congreso aprueba una

moción para revertir el proceso de despoblación y potenciar el desarrollo del medio rural

en España. REDR. Retrieved from

http://www.redr.es/es/cargarAplicacionNoticia.do?texto=&identificador=30657&fechaD

esde=&idCategoria=0&fechaHasta=

Salas. M. G., & Arias, S. (2017, September 1). Los cazadores apoyan las batidas de lobos para

aliviar la presión sobre la ganadería - La Nueva España - Diario Independiente de Asturias.

LNE. Oviedo. Retrieved from http://www.lne.es/asturias/2017/09/01/cazadores-apoyan-

batidas-lobos-aliviar/2157099.html

Schepers, F., & Jepson, P. (2016). Rewilding in a European Context. International Journal of

Wilderness, 22(25). Retrieved from

http://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/staff/Schepers_Jepson_Aug2016IJW.pdf

Skinner, E. A., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). The Development of Coping Coping.

Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 119 44.

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085705

Snyder, C. R. (1999). Coping : the psychology of what works. Oxford University Press.

Steele, J. R., Rashford, B. S., Foulke, T. K., Tanaka, J. A., & Taylor, D. T. (2013). Wolf (Canis

lupus) Predation Impacts on Livestock Production: Direct Effects, Indirect Effects, and

Implications for Compensation Ratios. Rangeland Ecology & Management. Society for

Range Management. https://doi.org/10.2307/42569151

Sylven, M., & Widstrand, S. (2015). A vision for a wilder Europe (2nd editio).

Tacoli, C. (1998). Rural-urban interactions: a guide to the literature. Environment and

Urbanization, 10(1), 147 166. https://doi.org/10.1177/095624789801000105

Taxus Medio Ambiente. (2007). Parque Natural de Redes. Retrieved April 23, 2018, from

Page 111

99 | P a g e



http://www.parquenaturalderedes.es/

Terres, J. M., Nisini, L., & Anguiano, E. (2013). Assessing the risk of farmland abandonment

in the EU Final report. https://doi.org/LB-NA-25783-EN-N

Treves, A., Chapron, G., López-Bao, J. V., Shoemaker, C., Goeckner, A. R., & Bruskotter, J.

T. (2017). Predators and the public trust. Biological Reviews, 92(Predators and the public

trust.), 248 270. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12227

Treves, A., Wallace, R. B., Naughton-Treves, L., & Morales, A. (2006). Co-Managing Human

Wildlife Conflicts: A Review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(6), 383 396.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200600984265

Ubalde, J. M., Rius, J., Poch, R. M., & Poch, R. M. (1999). Monitorizacion de los cambios de

uso del suelo en la cabecera de cuenca de la ribera salada mediante fotografía Aérea y

S.I.G. (El Solsonès, Lleida, España). Pirineos, 153 154(0), 101 122.

https://doi.org/10.3989/pirineos.1999.v153-154.108

UN/ISDR. (2004). Living with risk: a global review of disaster reduction initiatives. (New

York Geneva: United Nations). Retrieved from

http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/657

Ursino, N., & Romano, N. (2014). Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the

Mediterranean region. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(23), 8359 8368.

https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061560

-self-referentiality as a strategy

in the case of small forest owners coping with government regulations. Policy Sciences,

46(1), 63 81. https://doi.org/doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uned.es/10.1007/s11077-012-

9157-7

Varela, M. (2017, August 29). Los ganaderos de Caso afirman que el lobo mató más de 200

reses en Redes | El Comercio. El Comercio - Cuencas. Retrieved from

http://www.elcomercio.es/asturias/cuencas/ganaderos-afirman-lobo-20170829001557-

ntvo.html

Wikipedia. (2018). Asturias. Retrieved April 23, 2018, from

http://www.asturias.es/Asturias/descargas/imagen_institucional/dia_asturias.pdf

Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. J. (Simon J. ., & Rabinowitz, A. (2005). People and wildlife :

conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press.

Zeidner, M., & Saklofske, D. (1996). Adaptive and maladaptive coping. In M. Zeidner & N. S.

Endler (Ed.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 505 531). Oxford,

England: John Wiley. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1996-97004-022

Similer Documents