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Page 1

A CONSERVATION FOUNDATION SroDY

LIVING
RESOURCES
of the SEA
Opportunitiesfor Research
andExpansion

LIONEL A. WALFORD
Chief, Branchof FisheryBiology
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

THE RONALD PRESSCOMPANY ., NEW YORK

Page 2

Foreword

This book concerninglife within the oceansis of extraordinary
value and interest. It dealswith a subjectthat is of importanceto
peoplethroughoutthe world, summarizingin a mannernot hereto-
fore accomplishedour presentknowledgeconcerningthe living re-
sourcesof the sea.

In a major respectthe book is unusual,if not unique. So often
writings on any given subjectrepresentcompendiaof accumulated
knowledgeand that is the endof them. The striking characteristic
of this book is that its author,with restlesspurpose,seeksto demon-
stratenot somuchwhat is known aswhat is not known. While this
book is replete with existing information concerningmarine re-
sources,its greatsignificancelies in the fact that it so vividly em-
phasizeswhat still remainsto be learnedabout the life that lies
within the most extensiveelementof our earth.

The authoris underno illusion that theseareasof ignorancecan
be easily dispelled. He recognizes,as we all must, that the dra-
matic advancesthathaveoccurredin the physicalsciencesare due
in large part to the fact that the phenomenathat physicistswork
with areregularin their propertiesandact predictablyundergiven
circumstances,whereas,as the author expressesit, «the principles
thatunderliethebehavior,theabundance,thevery existenceof wild
plants and animals,particularly thosethat live out of Sight in the
depthsof the sea,are exceedinglyelusive-muchmore difficult to
discoverthan laws of matter and energy."

It is not as if the conquestof ignoranceconcerningmarine life
is desirablemerelyfor sometheoreticalreason. Mankind hascom-
pelling needfor the immeasurablequantitiesof self-generatingre-
sourcesthatcouldbe drawnfrom the oceansif thereweresufficient
knowledgeand skills at our command. It is an undeniablefact
that at the presenttime the productionof organic resourcesfrom

v

Page 163

THE ROLE OF DISEASE 157

TABLE 10-1. SOME MYXOSPORIDIA AND MICROSPORIDIA FROM MARINE FISHES
(Continued)

Host Parasite Site

Myxosporidia
Sebastesviviparus,redflsh . . . . . . . . . ... Leptothecamacrospora
Sphaeroidesmaculatus,commonpuffer. Ceratomyxanavicularia

. . . Sinuolineacapsularis

. . . Zschokkelaglobulosa
Tautogolabrusadspersus,cunner Chloromyxumclupeidae
Thrysitesatun, snakemackerel Chloromyxumthrysites
Urophycis chuss,codling Ceratomyxaacadiensis
Zeuscapensis,JohnDory Chloromyxumthrysites
Zoarcesamericanus,eel-pout Ceratomyxaacadiensis

Microsporidia
Acanthocottusscorpius,Europeanscul-

pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Plistophora typicalis
Callionymuslyra, dragonet..... . . . . .. Glugea destruens
Clupea pilchardus,sardine . . . . . . . . ... Glugea cordis
Lophius piscatorius, goosefish Nosemalophii
Macrozoarcesamericanus,oceanpout .. Plistophoramacrozoarcidis
Melanogrammusaeglefinus,haddock Nosemabranchiale
Osmeruseperlanus,Baltic smelt Glugea hertwigi
Osmerusmordax,Americansmelt . . . . .. Glugea hertwigi
Pollachius virens, pollack Glugeapunctifera

. . . . . . . . . . . .Plistophoraspp.
Pseudopleuronectes americanus,win-

ter Hounder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Glugeastephani

Gall bladder
Urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
Muscle
Muscle
Gall bladder
Muscle
Gall bladder

Muscle
Muscle
Heartmuscle
Nervous system
Muscle
Gills
Intestine
Intestine
Eye muscle
Muscle

Intestine

SOURCE: RossF. Nigrelli, "Cnidosporidiosisin Marine Fishes" (unpublishedmanu-
script,1952).

phritis, hepatitis,or enteritis such as occur in wann-bloodedver-
tebrates. Othersmay induce tumors of the infected organ or sur-
rounding tissue. Still othersmay causehyalin degenerationof the
tissues(seeTable 10-2).

Cnidosporidiaare responsiblefor the conditionknown asmushy
or wonny halibut and the milky diseaseof Australian barracuda.
The halibut fishery of the easternPacific has been subject to a
considerableannualloss becausea large percentageof the fish are
so badly infected as to be unmarketable.Apparently no figures
have beencompiled to indicate the frequencyof this disease. In
Australia, 5 per cent of the barracouta(Thrysitesatun),12 and in
SouthAfrica,13 76 per cent of the JohnDory (Zeuscapensis)and
70 per cent of the stockfish (Merlucciuscapensis)taken in trawls
have all been found infected with the same speciesof Cnido-
sp0ridian, namely, Unicapsula thrysites. About a quarter of the
catchof JohnDory hasbeenin suchbadconditionthat the fish were
unfit for filleting. Nigrelli commentsas follows on thesediseases.

Page 164

158 LIVING RESOURCESOF THE SEA
No determinationof what role they play in the mortality of fishes under

naturalconditionshasyet beenmade. There can be no doubt, however,that
affected fish becomesusceptibleto secondaryinvaders, such as fungi and
bacteria,and that the hostssuccumbmore readily to changesin the physical
and chemicalconditionsof the water, e.g., to suddenchangesin temperature,
pH, salinity, or to pollution.14

Thereareparasiticdinoflagellateswhich live in the body cavity
or in the gut of copepods. Parasitologistsseldomexaminecopepods
-thatis to say,not morethanhalf a dozenhavereporteddoing so
in the last 50 years-butwhen they do, they find theseorganisms.
Thustheyhaverecordedtheir presencein the Clyde Seaarea,in the

TABLE 10-2. CAUSES OF DEATH FROM PARASITIC AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF
FISHES IN THE NEW YORK AQUARIUM

1940 1941
Diseasesof skin and gills

Bacterial 8 23
Oodinium (DinoHa

1
ellate) 11

Trichodina (Ciliate 20 24
Myxosporidia (Cnidospordia) 3
Epibdella (Trematoda) 99 2
Microcotyle (Trematoda) 44 14
Diplectanus(Trematoda) 2
Argulus (Copepoda) 2
Livonica (Isopoda) 1

Diseasesof skin and internalorgans
Lymphocystis 9

Diseasesof di5estivesystem
Enteritisan Stenosisdueto Acan-

thocephala 5 5
Diseasesof circulatory system

Pericarditis due to EcWnostome
infection 1

Total ............... 201 72

SOURCE: RossF. Nigrelli, "Causesof Diseasesand Death of Fishesin Captivity,"
Zoologica, XXVIII (1943), 203-16. .

North Sea, in the English Channel, in the Mediterranean,and in
the Arabian Sea.15 Specimensof 25 speciesof copepodsin the
ArabianSeaand 16 in the Mediterraneanwere found infestedwith
severalkinds of dinoflagellatesof the genusBlastodinium.

Someparasitic dinoflagellatesspendthe first part of their life
cycle in the water as free-living flagellates. When one finds a suit-
ablehost, it penetratesthe body andtherechangesinto an amoeba-
like form having severalnuclei. At that stageit is called a plas-
modium. With Peridinium, one of the more pathological dino-
flagellates, the plasmodiumis a delicate network of protoplasm
which graduallyspreadsamongandover theorgans,pushesits way

Page 326

320 INDEX
Squids-continued

hunters, 71; in Pacific equatorialcur-
rent system,291

Squilla, noisesmadeby, 106
Starfishes,60
Statistics,fish, 239
Steller, Georg,266
Sterols,82
Stockfish (Merluecius eapensis), cnido-

sporidiandiseaseof, 157
Stommel,Henry, 84
Submarineobservationchamber,119
Sulfate-reducingbacteria, and red tide,

177, 180
Sulfides, and Gymnodiniumbrevis, 179
Surgeon fishes (Acanthuridae), toxicity

among,167
Surmullets (Mullidae), sporadic toxicity

in, 166
Swamps,and red tide, 179
SwedishSouthPole Expedition, 237
Swim bladder,as a sound-producingor-

gan, 106
"Swims," 112
Swordfish: as hunters, 71; in oceanic

currents,239
Symbiotic substance,81, 82
System,definition of, 88

Taft, CharlesH., 181
Tai-aie (food of young milkflsh), 141
Tait, John, 72
Tamba'ks,138
Tank studies of behavior: advantages,

108; pitfalls, 104, 108
Taste,as meansof detectingpresenceof

food in water, 102
Taxonomy, 53,57, 58,97, 293
Taylor, HardenF., 89
Technology,7, 187, 210, 294
Television camera,for underseastudies,

110,115ff.
Temperature,84: effecton behavior,108,

109; effect on incidence of disease,
150, 160; and red tide, 179

Tester,Albert, 103
Tetramethyl ammonium salt in marine

organisms,173
Textiles madeof seaweedproducts,284
Thompson,S. Y., 124
Threadfishes,243
Tide-pool fishes, 101
Tilapia, cultivation of, 144
Tinian Islands, fish poisoningat, 168
Toadfish, 97, 106
Tokai Regional Experimental Station,

Japan,203

Toothedwhales,258
Townsend,C. H., 291
Toxic properties,in plankt<m organisms,

78
Trace elements,68, 80, 97: in seaweed,

278
Transportationfacilities, distribution of,

25
Trashfish, 97
Traung,Jan-Olof, 185, 190,200
Trawlers,criteria for good design,191
Trepang,213
Troehus,219
Triggerfishes (Balistidae), sporadic tox-

icity among,167
Tropics, compared with northern lati-

tudesin wealth of fish life, 233
Trunkfishes (Ostraciidae), sporadic tox-

icity among, 167
Tuberculosisin fish, 159, 161
Tuna: clippers, experiencein designing,

198; in oceanic currents,239; in Pa-
cific equatorial current system, 291,
292; as a subjectof tank experiments,
102; Tilapia as bait for, 144; tuna
flesh extract for attracting,103

Tung-paiChen,137, 139
Tunicates:as food, 225; parasitesof, 159
Turtles, 254: effect of red tide on, 178;

toxicity in, 170
Tyrrell, John, 199
TyrrhenianSea,observationsfrom bathy-

scaphein, 118

UIva, 276
Underwatercamerafor behaviorstudies,

110, 114
Unieapsulathrysites, 157
United StatesFish and Wildlife Service

(see Bureau of CommercialFisher-
ies, Laboratories)

United StatesNavy HydrographicOffice.
301

Upwelling, 72: and distribution of
whales,258

Ursin, Erik, 95

Vallin, Sten,150
Van Weel, P. B., 102
Variation: in antibiotic activity, 282; in

biochemicalcompositionof marine or-
ganisms,70; in chemical composition
of seaweeds,287; in exploitationof the
sea,12; in fertility, 71; geographic,In
study of the sea, 13; in human cul-
tures, 11, 12; in human populations,
11; in incidenceof starvation, 19; in

Page 327

INDEX 321
intensity of fertilizing processes,73;
in productionof phytoplankton,71; in
set of oysters, 77; in size of year
broods, 69; in vitamin C content of
seaweeds,278

Venerufin, 173
Vertica movementof seawater, biologi-

cal significanceof, 73
Vertical turbulence,84
Vessels,fishing (seealsoFishingvessels):

improvementof, 182; model studies,
189

Vevers,Henry, 114
Vibration, in fishing vessels,196, 197
Vibrio, causeof diseasein fish, 160
Vibrio anguillarom, 160
Vidicon television chain, 116
Virgin fishery stocks, problems of ex-

ploiting, 40
Virgin Islands, occurrenceof poisonous

fish, 168
Virus diseases,161
Vision in fishes,101: function of, in feed-

ing,104
Vitamins: in Euphausiids,124; in livers

of bears and seals, 170; in marine
algae, 278; in plankton, 124; in sea-
weeds,277, 278

Wahoo, 291
Walrus, 269
Walvis Bay, S. W. Africa, red tide in,

176ff.
Washington State Departmentof Fish-

eries,160

Weather: and fishing, 30-33; study of,
in fishery researchprograms,68

WestAfrican zoogeographicregion,235
West Indian zoogeographicregion, 235,

236
WesternAfrica, hydrographyof, 72
Whales,257, 258, 263,264: baleen,257;

as harvestersof plankton, 128, 129;
meat, 264; sperm,258, 261,262, 263,
291; white, 264, 265,266

Whelks, 219
Whiting, in industrial fish fishery, 97
Williams, Hal B., 278
Wilson, Douglas,81
Wilson, W. B., 179
Wimpenny, R. 5., 123, 130
Wincnes, researchrequired to improve,

197
Wind, and red tide, 179
Window shell (Placuna placenta), use

of as windowpanes,217
Winter flounder, pepper-spotdiseasein,

148
Wood-boringisopods,222
Wrasses (Labridae), toxicity among,

167, 168
Wun (milkfish ponds),139

Ziener,Paul, 185, 195
Zimmer, Hans K., 188, 194
ZoarcesViviparous, 96
loBell, Claude,81, 84, 154
Zoogeowaphic regions, 235, 236, 237,

238
Zoology, in studyof environment,97
Zwolsman,W., 201

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