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Page 1




Living Planet
Report 2012
Biodiversity, biocapacity
and better choices

Page 2

WWF is one of the world’s largest and most experienced independent
conservation organizations, with over 5 million supporters and a global network
active in more than 100 countries.

WWF’s mission is to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment
and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by
conserving the world’s biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable
natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and
wasteful consumption.

Zoological Society of London
Founded in 1826, the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is an international
scientific, conservation and educational organization. Its mission is to achieve
and promote the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. ZSL
runs ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, carries out scientific research in
the Institute of Zoology and is actively involved in field conservation worldwide.

Global Footprint Network
The Global Footprint Network promotes the science of sustainability by
advancing the Ecological Footprint, a resource accounting tool that makes
sustainability measurable. Together with its partners, the Network works
to further improve and implement this science by coordinating research,
developing methodological standards, and providing decision-makers with
robust resource accounts to help the human economy operate within the Earth’s
ecological limits.

European Space Agency
The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europe’s gateway to space. Its mission is to
shape the development of Europe’s space capability and ensure that investment
in space continues to deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world.
ESA is an international organization with 19 member states. By coordinating
the financial and intellectual resources of its members, it can undertake
programmes and activities far beyond the scope of any single European country.
The Agency’s various programmes are designed to find out more about Earth, its
immediate space environment, our solar system and the universe.

WWF International
Avenue du Mont-Blanc
1196 Gland, Switzerland

Institute of Zoology
Zoological Society of London
Regent’s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK

Global Footprint Network
312 Clay Street, Suite 300
Oakland, California 94607, USA

European Space Agency
ESA HQ Mario-Nikis
8-10 rue Mario Nikis
75738 Paris Cedex 15

Design by

Cover photograph: KARI / ESA

ISBN 978-2-940443-37-6

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/ S





Margaret occupies an interesting spot on the spectrum of
energy use. Like 2.7 billion others, she cooks and heats
water with wood and charcoal. She is planting trees on her
property to ensure a source of fuel wood. Margaret also
has a small solar panel that allows her to read her Bible and
charge her mobile phone.

Could renewable energy leapfrog fossil fuels in developing
nations, in the same way that mobile phones leapfrogged
landlines, providing people like Margaret with energy
security, a healthier smoke-free kitchen and reducing the
pressure on nearby forests?

Page 163

Living Planet Index

The authors are extremely grateful to the following individuals and organizations

for sharing their data: Richard Gregory, Petr Vorisek and the European Bird Census

Council for data from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring scheme; the Global

Population Dynamics Database from the Centre for Population Biology, Imperial

College London; Derek Pomeroy, Betty Lutaaya and Herbert Tushabe for data from

the National Biodiversity Database, Makerere University Institute of Environment

and Natural Resources, Uganda; Kristin Thorsrud Teien and Jorgen Randers, WWF-

Norway; Pere Tomas-Vives, Christian Perennou, Driss Ezzine de Blas, Patrick Grillas and

Thomas Galewski, Tour du Valat, Camargue, France; David Junor and Alexis Morgan,

WWF-Canada and all data contributors to the LPI for Canada; Miguel Angel Nuñez

Herrero and Juan Diego López Giraldo, the Environmental Volunteer Programme in

Natural Areas of Murcia Region, Spain; Mike Gill from the CBMP, Christoph Zockler

from UNEP-WCMC and all data contributors to the ASTI report (; Arjan

Berkhuysen, WWF-Netherlands and all data contributors to the LPI for global estuarine

systems. A full list of data contributors can be found at

Ecological Footprint

The authors would like to thank the following national governments for their

collaboration on research to improve the quality of the National Footprint Accounts:

Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom; Finland, Germany, Ireland, Japan,

Belgium, Luxembourg, Indonesia and Ecuador.

Much of the research for this report would not have been possible without the generous

support of: Avina Stiftung, Foundation for Global Community, Funding Exchange,

MAVA - Fondation pour la Protection de la Nature, Mental Insight Foundation, Skoll

Foundation, Stiftung ProCare, The Winslow Foundation; Flora Family Foundation;

Karl Mayer Foundation; Zayed International Prize for the Environment; VIVA Trust;

Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi; Dr. Med Arthur und Estella Hirzel-Callegari Stiftung;

Daniela Schlettwein-Gsell; Oliver and Bea Wackernagel; Marie-Christine Wackernagel-

Burckhardt; Ader B. Gandi; Sarosh Kumana; Terry and Mary Vogt and many other

individual donors.

We would also like to acknowledge the Global Footprint Network’s 77 partner

organizations; and the Global Footprint Network National Accounts Committee for their

guidance, contributions, and commitment to robust National Footprint Accounts.

European Space Agency

ESA’s activities fall into two categories – “mandatory” and “optional”. Programmes

carried out under the General Budget and the Science Programme budget are

“mandatory”; they include the agency’s basic activities (studies on future projects,

technology research, shared technical investments, information systems and training


All member states contribute to these programmes on a scale based on their Gross

Domestic Product (GDP). The other programmes, known as “optional”, are only of

interest to some member states, who are free to decide on their level of involvement.

Optional programmes cover areas such as Earth observation, telecommunications,

satellite navigation and space transportation. Similarly, the International Space Station

and microgravity research are financed by optional contributions.

Additional thanks

With special thanks to staff at WWF-US, WWF-UK, WWF-Netherlands and WWF

International for their invaluable comments during the review of this report and for

further contributions.

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© 1986 Panda symbol WWF – World Wide Fund For Nature (Formerly World Wildlife Fund)

® “WWF” is a WWF Registered Trademark. WWF, Avenue du Mont-Blanc, 1196 Gland,

Switzerland – Tel. +41 22 364 9111; Fax. +41 22 364 0332. For contact details and further

information, visit our international website at at

Why we are here

To stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and
to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.




Biodiversity, ecosystems and
ecosystem services – our
natural capital – must be
preserved as the foundation
of well-being for all.

It takes 1.5 years for the
Earth to regenerate the
renewable resources that
people use, and absorb the
CO2 waste they produce,
in that same year.

Equitable resource governance
is essential to shrink and share
our resource use.

Living within ecological
boundaries requires a global
consumption and production
pattern in balance with the
Earth’s biocapacity.

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