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Titleliving on the margins the analysis of the livelihood strategies of sudanese refugees with closed
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FMRS Working Paper No. 6  Page  1 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Acknowledgements ..............................................................................................3 
Introduction .........................................................................................................4 
Chapter 1 .............................................................................................................6 
Background and Terminology............................................................................6 
Research Background .....................................................................................................................................6 
The Urban Context ..........................................................................................................................................7 
Concepts ............................................................................................................................................................8 
Livelihood ......................................................................................................................................................8 
Marginality ...................................................................................................................................................10 
Refugees .......................................................................................................................................................10 
The Process of Integration...........................................................................................................................11 

Chapter 2 ...........................................................................................................14 
Research Context ..............................................................................................14 
Country of Origin Context — Sudan..........................................................................................................14 
Sudanese Refugees in Egypt.........................................................................................................................15 
Egypt’s International Commitments ...........................................................................................................15 
Sudanese Refugees and Their Status in Egypt...........................................................................................16 

Chapter 3 ...........................................................................................................20 
Methodology and Research Design .................................................................20 
Choice of Methodology..................................................................................................................................20 
Selection of Interviewees and Field Sites....................................................................................................22 
Unit of Analysis ..............................................................................................................................................24 
Data Gathering...............................................................................................................................................26 
Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection ...........................................................................................26 

Chapter 4 ...........................................................................................................28 
Results of the Study ...........................................................................................28 
Refugee Status and the Impact of Policies .................................................................................................28 
Who Are We And Why We Are Here? ......................................................................................................29 
Reasons behind Seeking Asylum in Egypt.................................................................................................29 
Pattern of Flight ...........................................................................................................................................31 
Entry to Egypt ..............................................................................................................................................32 

Educational and Professional Background................................................................................................32 
Being and Not Being – Coping with Illegality ...........................................................................................33 
The Meaning of Illegality and Legality......................................................................................................33 
Effective Protection .....................................................................................................................................35 
Coping with Illegality..................................................................................................................................37 
Access to Rights...........................................................................................................................................39 
‘Blue Card’ – Real Versus Perceived Protection.......................................................................................46 

Coping with Hardship — Networks of Support........................................................................................47 
Assistance for whom?..................................................................................................................................48 
UNHCR Assistance .....................................................................................................................................48 
Faith­Based Institutions and NGOs............................................................................................................49 
Family and Community Assistance ............................................................................................................51 
Assistance as a Coping Strategy .................................................................................................................52 

Living Conditions and Choice of Residence ..............................................................................................53 
Housing in Egypt .........................................................................................................................................54 
Changing Accommodation..........................................................................................................................55 
Housing Conditions .....................................................................................................................................56 
Coping Strategies .........................................................................................................................................57 

Refugees as an Economic Burden or Asset? ..............................................................................................60 
Savings from Sudan .....................................................................................................................................60 
Work and Salaries ........................................................................................................................................61 
Remittances ..................................................................................................................................................67

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