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TitleLiving in Water
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Living in Water. An Aquatic Science Curriculum for
Grades 4-6. Second Edition.
National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of
Education.

National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
89

MDR-8470190

339p.; Drawings may not reproduce well.
National Aquarium in Baltimore, Education Dept., Pier
2, 501 E. Pratt St., Baltimore, MD 21202 ($10.00 east
of Rockies; $12.00 west of Rockies and Canada;
$150.00 per box of 20).
Guides - Classroom Use - Guides (For Teachers) (052)
-- Guides - Classroom Use - Materials (For Learner)
(051)

MF01/PC14 Plus Postage.
An'mals; *Biological Sciences; Botany; *Ecology;
*Elementary School Science; Environmental Education;
Intermediate Grades; Laboratory Equipment; Laboratory
Procedures; Marine Education; Middle Schools;
*Science Activities; Water; Zoology

This document is a scientific study of water, aquatic
environments and the plants and animals that live in water. It was
written for grades 4-6 but many activities may also be of interest
for use with older students. This curriculum covers both marine and
-freshwater habitats. Each of five sections addresses a question about
water which is then answered by a variety of activities using an
experimental, science process approach to enable the students
themselves to arrive at answers. Each section is preceded by
teachers' information with science content related to the activities
written for the teacher. The emphasis for the students is on process
rather than on content. In addition to experiments and classification
activities, several exercises test the application of basic
principles through the development of models. Following each
exercise, extension activities enable students to pursue a variety of
related topics. Some allow students to apply the results of their
experiments to specific environmental problems. Supporting materials
offer information on preparation of materials and sources of
supplies. Worksheets and information sheets may be used directly or
may be replaced by materials prepared by the teacher. The review of
what science education research says about the "hands-on" approach to
teaching elementary science will help teachers understand the
emphasis on process. A glossary of terms used is provided.
(Author/CW)

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* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made *
* from the original document. *
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Page 2

LIVING
IN WATER

an aquatic science curriculum for grades 4-6
National Aquarium in Baltimore

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U S DEPARTMENT Of EDUCATION
Office of Educational Research and Improvement

EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIO4
otCENTER IERICI

iTnis document nas been reproduced as
rece.ved from the person or organizafion
onginating it

O Mmor changes have been made to improve
reproduction puaiity

roints of view or opinions stated in tors docu
ment do not necessarily represent official
OERI posdlon or policy

"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS
4TERIAL HAS BEEN GRAN) ED BY

Valerie P. Chase

TO THE EDUCA 710NAL RESOURCES

INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)

BEST COPY AVAILAtiLt
0

Page 159

LESSON PLAN:
BEFORE CLASS:

The experiment covers three days. Have the students start the experiment one day, putting
the jars in the dark overnight. On the second day, they will test each for dissolved oxygen and then
put the jars in two different light intensities. On the third day, they will again test for dissolved
oxygen to see what the effect of the two different light intensities was you may shorten the activity
by setting it up yourself. This is written in a way that assumes you do the first day's preparation
yourself.

Day One: Pour aged tap water into each jar. Add the Elodea or other aquatic plant. Try to get
the same total length of plant in each jar. Make sure the jars are full to overflowing and seal. Place
at room temperature in the dark overnight. This will remove almost all of the oxygen from the
water and s'turate it with carbon dioxide because the plants are using the oxygen in respiration and
producing carbon dioxide as a waste product. If you started this experiment with the amount of
oxygen normally found in room temperature water, oxygen (which is a waste product of photo-
synthesis) would build up and slow down photosynthesis. If you used boiled water which is low in
oxygen, it would also be low in carbon dioxide which is required for photosynthesis.

DURING CLASS:
METHODS: Day livo: Review the results of student observations with regard to light and its

absorbance by water. What is the most likely effect of low light availability on the plants that live in
water? What do the students know about pla; and how they use light? Review photosynthes.-,. F n
they think of a way to test the effect of low light?

Bring out the jars and explain what you have done to prepare for this activity. Ask the
students what they might use as 'easure of how much photosynthesis takes place Oxygen is
produced as a waste product, and they are good at dissolved oxygen measurements. .,:hat do they
need ti do first? Measure the amount of oxygen at the beginning of the experiment. Replace the lost
water from the sample with cool boiled tap water.

How will they test the effect of low light on photosynthesis? Put one jar of each pair in high
or low light after testing for dissolved oxygen. One location might be full sunlight and the other,
indirect light. Incandescent lights may be used also. Either put the jars two different distances
from lights of the same intensity or put them all the same distance from bulbs u: two different
intensities such as 75 and 150 watts. Avoid intense heat, but make sure the jars stay between 65 and
80° F

Day Three: lest the dissolved oxygen in the two jars. Calculate the results as the difference
oetween Dzby 'Rvo and Day Three. I lave students put their results on the hoard so that all the
students can share.

CaL1111111

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RESULTS:
The dissolved oxygen produced should be greater in the jars that received more light. How

ciid the results compare with the results from plants left in the dark in Activity 11? Considering that
respiration happens all the time, the amount of actual oxygen produced is really higher than you
measured because it is constantly being used in respiration as it is being produced by photo-
synthesis. All that can be measured in this activity is the amount left over.

If the student were an aquatic plant, where would he/she want to live and why? Near the
surface or in shallow where there would be enough light to make enough food to survive. It would
be important that the water be clear so that light could get through.

CONCLUSIONS:
The amount of photosynthesis done by water plants is directly related to the available light.

Where light does not reach in deep water, no photosynthesis takes place. Only the light surface
waters produce food.

USING YOUR CLASSROOM AQUARIUM:
If your classroom aquarium receives goo(' fight and you have a good algal population or many

underwater plants, you might try turning off the aeration em on two successive days. The first
day leave it uncovered and test the dissolved oxygen leN..J af, r several hours .urn the aeration back
on. If the animals did not show signs of stress, the following day turn off the aeration system and
cover the tank with a dark cloth for two hours. Again test tilt, dissolved oxygen. It should be much
lower if your plants or algae are healthy.

Discuss why plants and animals both belong in an aquarium. What is the role of the aeration
system? If you carefully planned the amount of plants and animals in your aquarium, could you do
without an aeration system? Theoretically, in a properly balanced aquarium with the right amount
of light, the amount of excess oxygen produced in photosynthesis could balance that used by plants
and animals in respiration.

EXTENSIONS:
1. Have your students design and draw a balanced aquarium in which aeration of the water by

a pump is not required. It is possible to find the right combination of plants and animals, but most
people put too many animals in their system.

2. Have your students list all the things they can think of that make water more turbid. Some
things are sediment from farms or housing developments, sewage, and industrial wastes. They
might not realize that things like plant nutrients that come from fertilizer, animal manure or
sewage can make the water more turbid by encouraging phytoplankton to grow too fast. The
phytoplankton can actually get so dense that they keep light from reaching aquatic plants growing
on the bottom.

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Page 318

e
DATA SHEET FOR ACTIVITIES 29 AND 30

First run

feeding level no. live
at beginning

no. eaten no. that
starved

no. alive
at end

herbivores

carnivores

top carnivores

results

Second run

feeding level no. live
at beginning

no. eaten no. that
starved

no. alive
at end

herbivores

carnivores

top carnivores

results

Third run

feeding level no. live
at beginning

no. eaten 1 no. that
starved

no. alive
at end

herbivores

carnivores

top carnivores

results

Page 319

Write depth (in cnil next to position where lines cross.

North
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

L..

South

328 329

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