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Page 1

Lives
adrift
Refugees and migRants in peRil
in the centRal mediteRRanean

Page 2

This report is published as part of
Amnesty International’s S.O.S. Europe campaign.
To find out more visit:
www.sos-europe-amnesty.eu.

First published in 2014 by
Amnesty International Ltd
Peter Benenson House
1 Easton Street
London WC1X 0DW
United Kingdom

© Amnesty International 2014

Index: EUR 05/006/2014
Original language: English
Printed by Amnesty International,
International Secretariat, United Kingdom

All rights reserved. This publication is copyright, but may
be reproduced by any method without fee for advocacy,
campaigning and teaching purposes, but not for resale.

The copyright holders request that all such use be registered
with them for impact assessment purposes. For copying in
any other circumstances, or for reuse in other publications,
or for translation or adaptation, prior written permission
must be obtained from the publishers, and a fee may be
payable. To request permission, or for any other inquiries,
please contact [email protected]

Cover photo: Asylum seekers and migrants from Africa
being rescued at sea and taken aboard an Italian navy ship,
8 June 2014. © Massimo Sestini / eyevine

amnesty.org

Amnesty International is a global movement of more than 3 million supporters,
members and activists in more than 150 countries and territories who campaign
to end grave abuses of human rights.

Our vision is for every person to enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.
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Page 44

LIVES ADRIFT
REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS IN PERIL
IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN

Index: EUR 05/006/2014Amnesty International September 2014

B l a c k Se a

North
Sea

Bay of
Biscay

Ionian
Sea

Aegean

Sea

Tyrrhenian
Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

B
a l

t i
c
S

e
a


G

u
l f

o
f
B
ot

hn
ia



Gulf of
Fin

land


C
a

s p
i a n Se a



Sea of
Azov

M e d
i

t
e

r

r
a

n
e a n S e a

Strait of Gibraltar

Skage
rra

k

A
dr iatic Sea

Wh
ite

S
ea



Bo

sp
orus



GER MANY

UNITED
KINGDOM

FRANCE

TUNISIA

LIBYA

UKRAINE

ITALY

BELARUS

K
A

Z
A

K
H

S
T

A
N

ROMANIA

TURKEY

GREECE

BULGARIA

AUSTRIA
HUNGARY

TURKMENISTAN

UZBEKISTAN

SPAIN

POLAND

FINLANDSWEDEN

RUSSIAN
FEDERATION

CYPRUS

ISRAEL

CROATIA
SLOVENIA

SLOVAKIA

BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA

REP. OF
MOLDOVA

CZECH REP.

MONACO

1

LUXEMBOURG

SAN
MARINO

LIECHTEN-
STEIN

PORTUGAL

BELGIUM

NETHERLANDS

DENMARK

ESTONIA

LATVIA

LITHUANIA

GEORGIA

ARMENIA

AZERBAIJAN

Gibraltar

RUSS.
FED.

SERBIA

MONTENEGRO

Crete

Sardinia

Sicily

Balearic Is.

Corsica

Crimea

Nor
dkapp

0

0 500250 750

250 500 mi

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used
on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance
by the United Nations.

Albania
Andorra
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Georgia
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Liechtenstein

Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Monaco
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
San Marino
Serbia and Montenegro
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
United States of America
Uzbekistan

Members:

Map No. 3976 Rev. 11 UNITED NATIONS
November 2011

Department of Field Support
Cartographic Section

ALGERIAMOROCCO

MALTA

Lampedusa

X

Friday 11 October 2013, approximately 5:00pm:
a trawler carrying over 400 people, mostly Syrian families
including about 150 children, sank 111km from
Lampedusa and 218km from Malta, in Malta’s search
and rescue zone. 212 people were rescued, and about
200 are presumed dead. Only 26 bodies were recovered.
A dispute between Malta and Italy over which country
was responsible for rescuing them may have delayed
rescue operations.

Search and rescue zone of Italy

Search and rescue zone of Malta

Search and rescue zone of Libya

Area currently patrolled by
Italy’s Operation Mare Nostrum

Territorial waters of each state.

Position of the shipwreck
on 11 October 2013

x

Key

Zones of operation in central Mediterranean

Page 45

LIVES ADRIFT
REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS IN PERIL
IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN

Index: EUR 05/006/2014 Amnesty International September 2014

B l a c k Se a

North
Sea

Bay of
Biscay

Ionian
Sea

Aegean

Sea

Tyrrhenian
Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

B
a l

t i
c
S

e
a


G

u
l f

o
f
B
ot

hn
ia



Gulf of
Fin

land


C
a

s p
i a n Se a



Sea of
Azov

M e d
i

t
e

r

r
a

n
e a n S e a

Strait of Gibraltar

Skage
rra

k

A
dr iatic Sea

Wh
ite

S
ea



Bo

sp
orus



GER MANY

UNITED
KINGDOM

FRANCE

TUNISIA

LIBYA

UKRAINE

ITALY

BELARUS

K
A

Z
A

K
H

S
T

A
N

ROMANIA

TURKEY

GREECE

BULGARIA

AUSTRIA
HUNGARY

TURKMENISTAN

UZBEKISTAN

SPAIN

POLAND

FINLANDSWEDEN

RUSSIAN
FEDERATION

CYPRUS

ISRAEL

CROATIA
SLOVENIA

SLOVAKIA

BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA

REP. OF
MOLDOVA

CZECH REP.

MONACO

1

LUXEMBOURG

SAN
MARINO

LIECHTEN-
STEIN

PORTUGAL

BELGIUM

NETHERLANDS

DENMARK

ESTONIA

LATVIA

LITHUANIA

GEORGIA

ARMENIA

AZERBAIJAN

Gibraltar

RUSS.
FED.

SERBIA

MONTENEGRO

Crete

Sardinia

Sicily

Balearic Is.

Corsica

Crimea

Nor
dkapp

0

0 500250 750

250 500 mi

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used
on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance
by the United Nations.

Albania
Andorra
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Canada
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Georgia
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Liechtenstein

Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Monaco
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
San Marino
Serbia and Montenegro
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Tajikistan
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
United States of America
Uzbekistan

Members:

Map No. 3976 Rev. 11 UNITED NATIONS
November 2011

Department of Field Support
Cartographic Section

ALGERIAMOROCCO

MALTA

Lampedusa

X

(other/undetermined 43%) Source: Frontex

Mohammed Kazkji, aged 22 from Damascus,
Syria, pictured in Malta. He survived the
shipwreck of 11 October 2013. His friend Yahea
did not.

©
A

m
n
es

ty
I

n
te

rn
at

io
n
al

©
p

ri
va

te

The Wahid sisters, Randa, 10, Sherihan, 8, Nurhan, 6, and Kristina, 2,
were never found after the shipwreck of 11 October 2013. Their father
Hasan Yousef Wahid, and their mother, Manal Hashash, both Syrians,
have been looking for them since.

130,000
seaborne refugees and migrants irregularly crossing Europe’s southern
border in 2014 as of 15 September. Of these, over 118,000 arrived
in Italy by boat.

Over 2,500
people died at sea in the same period. This means approximately
that one in every 53 people dies.

People who crossed the central Mediterranean
in the first 8 months of 2014 by top nationalities:

Eritrea 23%
Syria 17%
Mali 6%
Nigeria 4%
Gambia 4%
Somalia 3%

“We are hanging on to the hope
that we will find our children.
All we want is to find our daughters,
either dead or alive.”

“Yahea was 22... I cannot look into
the sea, I lost my friend Yahea,
maybe I lost my soul and my mind
in the sea. I hate the sea, I can’t
look at it.”

Page 87

WhetheR in a high-pROfile cOnflict
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galVaniZe puBlic suppORt tO Build
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Page 88

LIVES ADRIFT
REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS IN PERIL
IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN

The EU and its member states are imposing a survival test on
refugees and migrants. Unable to enter the EU through safe
and regular routes, tens of thousands, desperate for asylum and
a better life, attempt to cross the central Mediterranean each
year. In the first nine months of 2014, over 2,500 people died
trying – a new record. This must stop.

Through the testimony of survivors, this report documents
the perils of the journey. It analyzes the long-standing
shortcomings in the search and rescue services provided in
the central Mediterranean and makes recommendations for
their improvement.

Italy’s Operation Mare Nostrum has temporarily papered over
these problems, but it is not a sufficient or durable solution.
An adequately funded and appropriately mandated EU-led
search and rescue operation is urgently needed to fulfil a
shared EU responsibility.

September 2014
Index: EUR 05/006/2014

amnesty.org

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