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TitleLived Religion and the Politics of (In)Tolerance
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LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Notes on Contributors
List of Figures
List of Tables
Lived Religion and Lived (In)Tolerance
	Lived Religion
	Lived (In)Tolerance
	The Structure of the Volume
		Part I: Fostering Intolerance
		Part II: Fostering Tolerance
	Reflections
	Bibliography
Part I: Fostering Intolerance
	Paradigms of [In]Tolerance? On Sri Lanka’s Bodu Bala Sena, #prezpollsl2015, and Transformative Dynamics of Lived Religion
		Lived Religion: A Theoretical Framework?
		Saffron Politics and the Advent of BBS
		BBS: A Radical Outfit?
		Beyond the Comfort Zone? BBS’s External Interactions
		Inspirations and Functional Dynamics: Deploying Lived Religion for an Agenda of Intolerance?
		Outreach Initiatives: Mingling Practices of Lived Religion with Political Influence
		Conceptualizing the ‘Threat’: On BBS and Muslims
		Countering BBS? Early 2015 Developments
		Conclusion
		Bibliography
	Notes on the Christian Battle to End the “Abortion Holocaust”
		Social Activism as Lived Religion
		Strategies of Resistance
		The History of Abortion in Nazi Germany
		The Politics of Holocaust Memory
		Bibliography
	Lived Religion and the Intolerance of the Cross
		Introduction
		Roman Crucifixions, State Terror, and Sexualised Violence
		Roman Crucifixions as Displays of Extreme Intolerance
			Intolerance of the Life of the Victim
			Intolerance of the Human Dignity of the Victim
			Intolerance of Memory of the Victim
			Intolerance of the Victim’s Standing Before God
		Lived Religion and Uncritical Tolerance of the Violence of the Cross
		Conclusion
		Bibliography
	The Patriarch and the Pride: Discourse Analysis of the Online Public Response to the Serbian Orthodox Church Condemnation of the 2012 Gay Pride Parade
		Introduction
		Lived Religion and Sexual Nationalism in Serbia
			Media Context
		Aim, Method, Corpus
			Aim
			Method
			Corpus
		Results
		Relational Discursive Strategies: Online Intolerance
			Intolerance and Disqualification Toward  the Church/Patriarch
			Intolerance and Disqualification Toward the State/Society
			Intolerance and Disqualification of the Pride
			Relational Strategies: Discussion
		Argumentative Discursive Strategies: Online Lived Religion
			Authority Claims
			Facts and Comparisons
			Thesis Replacement
		Argumentative Discursive Strategies: Discussion
		Conclusion
		Bibliography
	“Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol” Lived Religion, Conflict, and Intolerance in Brazilian Films
		Introduction
			Brazil’s Cultural and Religious Context: A Religious Context of Conflict and Intolerance
			The Lived Religion in Films: An Analysis
				Sociopolitical Conflict Imploring Religion
				Internal Religious Conflict
				Lack of Hope and Intolerance Toward the Invisible
			Findings
		Bibliography
Part II: Fostering Tolerance
	God, Government, and Greenbelt: Lived Religion and the Cultural Politics of (In)Tolerance in the Social Engineering of a Cooperative New Deal Resettlement Town, 1937–1940
		Greenbelt, the Federal Government’s Suburban Experiment in Tolerant Cooperation
		Church and State
			Photographing Everyday Religion in America
			Quaker and Catholic Initiatives
			Protestants Test (In)Tolerance
			Tenant Selection in Resettlement Projects
		(In)Tolerance, Goodwill, and Protestant Triumphalism
		Bureaucrats, Benign Quotas, (In)Tolerance, and the Census of Religious Bodies
		Will Alexander, Lived Religion, Tolerance, and Political Expediency
			Protestantism on the March
		Rose Alpher, Jewish Greenbelt’s Martha Allen
		Tolerant Cooperation Becomes Greenbelt’s Lived Religion
		Shall Tolerance Prevail?
			Kincheloe’s Dream: A Temple of Religious Tolerance
			Hollywood Angel, Hollow Hopes
			Twilight of the Temple of Tolerance
		God, Government, Greenbelt
		Bibliography
			Archival Collections
			AFSCA: American Friends Service Committee Archives
			CUA: Catholic University of America Archives
			CUCNY: Columbia University in the City of New York: Oral History Archives
			GCCA: Greenbelt Community Church Archives
			NAL: National Agricultural Library
			NARA: National Archives and Records Administration
			RG 96, Box 65, Folder “Religious”
			FDRPL: Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library
			Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Series 90, Box 80, Folder “Tea”
			Yale: Yale University. Anson Phelps Stokes Family Papers
			Other/Unattributed Articles
			(GC) Greenbelt Cooperator (newsletter)
			NYT: New York Times
			WP: Washington Post
	Uncanny Landscapes of Memory: “Bosnian Pyramids” and the Contemporary World-Making in Bosnia and Herzegovina
		The Miracle of Discovery
		“The Greatest Discovery of the Millennium”
		Impossibility of History
		The “Absent Truth” and the Need for Miracles
		Bibliography
	Reconciliation, Justice, and (In)Tolerance Hijacked by Religious Apathy: Transforming Reconciliation 20 Years After the TRC in South Africa
		Introduction
		Understanding Reconciliation, Justice, and Tolerance 20 Years After the TRC
		The Role of the Church in the Public Domain
		The Church as the Embodiment of Hope
		Conclusion
		Bibliography
	The Politics of Intolerance, Lived Religion, and Theological Reflection Around Belfast’s Separation Barriers
		The Social Reality of the Separation Barriers
		The Separation Barriers as a Manifestation of Intolerance
			The Politics of Intolerance and the Separation Barriers
		The Nature of Lived Religion in Belfast
		How Lived Religion Might Address the Issue of the Separation Barriers
		‘Make Gods for Us’: Examining Social Reality Through a Transformational ‘Lens’
		Reflection to Praxis
		Bibliography
	Fostering Religious Tolerance in Education: The Dutch Perspective
		Introduction
		Context: Religious Education in the Netherlands
		European Research on Religious Tolerance and Education
		Some Critical Notes on Research So Far
		Ways in Which Religious Tolerance in Education Can Be Enhanced
		Conclusions
		Bibliography
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Edited by
R. Ruard Ganzevoort
and Srdjan Sremac

Palgrave Studies in Lived Religion
and Societal Challenges

LIVED RELIGION
AND THE
POLITICS OF
(IN)TOLERANCE

Page 2

Palgrave Studies in Lived Religion
and Societal Challenges

Series Editors

Nancy Ammerman
Religious Research Association

Galva, Illinois, USA

R. Ruard Ganzevoort
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Srdjan Sremac
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Page 132

126

Lack of Hope and Intolerance Toward the Invisible

In this third type I focus on Linha de Passe, directed by Walter Salles and
Daniela Thomas and launched in 2008.5 Linha de passe in soccer is the
right moment and place where a player must pass the ball to another,
thus enabling them to fulfill their purpose of scoring the goal. The film
of this name is precisely about this: the pass line in the lives of people on
the periphery of the world in seeking to survive (Canassa, R.D (n.d.)).

The film is characterized by a realism that sometimes makes it appear to
be the film of a news story. It tells the story of four brothers and a mother
who live in Cidade Líder, a low income neighborhood on the outskirts
of the metropolitan area of São Paulo. They are all fanatical supporters
of Corinthians, a soccer club (Sport Club Corinthians Paulista). Their
father is absent, so they must fight for their dreams. One of them, Dario
(Vinícius de Oliveira), sees in his talent as a soccer player the hope for
a better life. At the age of 18, he sees his idea receding, since players are
usually discovered at an earlier age. Reginaldo (Kaique de Jesus Santos),
the youngest, looks obsessively for his father, who is a bus driver. Dinho
(José Geraldo Rodrigues) has converted, and worships at a Pentecostal
Protestant church, abandoning a mundane life in which he often went
on drinking sprees. Dênis (João Baldasserini), father of a boy, with a girl
with whom he no longer lives, has trouble earning enough money as a
motorcycle delivery boy to pay his son’s allowance.

All of them, apparently, are sons of different fathers and were brought
up by Cleuza (Sandra Corveloni), their mother, who works as a house-
hold servant and is pregnant again by another father. Cleuza struggles
on her own, as father and mother at the same time, to support her
sons, maintain the precarious house on the outskirts, where the sink is
always blocked, capturing a reality that occurs very often in Brazil today.
Although she is pregnant, she smokes and drinks to relieve tension. She
also a fan of the Corinthians. In some scenes she is shown making wishes
and praying for her favorite team.

5 The film received nine minutes of applause during the Cannes Festival, besides Sandra Corveloni
winning the best actress award.

J.C. Adam

Page 133

The conflict here is not of one religion against another, nor of religion
with a given life situation, ideology, or movement. There is no religion
that permeates the entire plot of the film, as in the previous examples.
Soccer here is the most religious element that frames the entire drama
(Canassa, R.D (n.d.)).

The conflict and intolerance in Linha de Passe is social marginality,
social invisibility, and the lack of prospects. The conflict is about the pass
line in real life that appears never to be implemented. The conflict is with
the lack of hope and the human impossibility of having a life with dignity
in a city and society that renders most of its citizens invisible. The possible
“pass lines” are: to manage to play soccer in an outstanding team and thus
rise socially, which is the dream of thousands of youths in Brazil (Dario);
to achieve prosperity through faith and spiritual conversion, waiting for
a miracle that does not happen (Dinho); to get work or an activity—
whether it be as a criminal, as a robber—with a wage that allows one to
live a minimally decent life and support a small son (Denis); to look for
one’s father (Reginaldo); and to manage to ensure the survival of one’s chil-
dren—finding their pass line—and hope (in the great game of life, count-
ing on luck), so that they will survive the cruelties of the big city (Cleuza).

Practically all these possibilities go wrong. Dario does not manage to
stand out sufficiently to build a career as a soccer player. Dinho goes
back to drinking, loses his job, and appears to lose faith. Denis steals
and, as he flees, abducts someone. Cleuza feels the birth pangs of one
more child that is arriving. Reginaldo steals a bus and drives off aimlessly
through the city. This last may be the most plausible possibility, even if it
is absurd. The only place where it seems there is an actual pass line is in
watching the favorite, beloved soccer team, adored like a religion.

Dinho’s moments in the church are significant for this study. This
is one of the many small churches in low income areas, a Pentecostal
Protestant church, with a clear theology of prosperity and cure. The faces
of the few people who attend the services show the marks of poverty and
of daily problems. In one of the first scenes, the gathered congregation
devotedly sings a hymn that says “you are important to God.” Another
scene that clearly illustrates the theme of the film is the one that shows
the attempted cure of a paralyzed woman. Despite the praying and bless-
ings, the woman does not walk again. Two attempts, one on the day of

“Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol” Lived Religion, Conflict, and... 127

Page 263

260 Index

F
Farm Security Administration, 162,

164–5, 170
Federal Council of Churches, 10,

140, 144

G
Gnanasara, 26–30, 30n4, 32, 32n9
Greenbelt, 10, 135–56, 159–61, 170

H
Herzegovina, 9–12, 171–91
historical narratives, 180, 185, 189
Holocaust, 8, 41–58, 77n19, 78n21

I
identity, 2–3, 9, 11–13, 45, 72,

77–8, 87–9, 105–7, 164,
171–2, 179, 185, 194–6,
202–4, 210, 218–19, 222,
230–2, 240–1, 249, 251,
253–4

interfaith cooperation, 150
intolerance, 1–3, 6–12, 23, 26–8,

30, 35, 63–82, 85–6, 92,
95–101, 105, 107, 111–211,
215–33, 237, 254

J
Jatika Hela Urumaya (JHU), 20,

23–5, 33–5
justice, 6–7, 10–11, 21, 29, 41,

47–8, 77n19, 114, 118,
120, 149, 185, 193–211

L
landscapes of memory, 10, 171–91
lived religion, 1–13, 19–36, 43–6,

58, 63–82, 85–90, 95,
101–7, 111–31, 135–56,
186, 202–4, 215–33

lived theology, 11, 79–80, 124,
215–33

M
Maduluwavé Sobhitha, 34
Mahavamsa, 23
Mahinda Rajapaksa, 19, 24–6, 31–6
Maryland, 135, 142, 144, 150, 153,

156, 167, 169
Muslim, 19–20, 29–34, 56–7, 66n5,

97n7, 183

N
Negombo, 33
New Deal, 10, 135–56
Northern Sri Lanka, 26, 33

P
patriarch, 9, 12, 58, 76, 80n23,

85–107
Polonnaruwa, 33
post-TRC, 195, 197–8, 205

R
Ranil Wickremesinghe, 20, 23
reconciliation, 2, 7, 10–11, 13, 21,

172, 180, 185–211, 223–8,
231–2

Page 264

261 Index

religious apathy, 10, 193–211
religious education, 13, 238–44,

247, 249–51, 253–4
religious quotas, 142–4, 155–6
Resettlement Administration, 135,

162, 165
Right to Life, 47
Roe v. Wade, 41, 50–1

S
sectarianism, 8, 65–6, 66n6, 98n8,

215, 218, 220–4, 226
security, 11, 26, 28, 33, 88, 103,

137, 162, 164–5, 170,
217–22, 230–2

segregation, 201, 218, 220–2, 225,
232, 251

Serbian Orthodox Church, 9,
85–107

sexual abuse, 68–70, 70n16, 75n17,
78, 78n21, 81, 96

sexual nationalism, 12, 86–90
Sinhala-Buddhist, 8, 19–20, 23–36
Sinhala-Buddhist nationalist

movement, 8
social activism, 43–6
Sri Lanka, 7–8, 11–12, 19–36

T
(in)tolerance, 1–13, 85–6, 90, 95,

125, 135–56, 171–2, 180,
193–211, 245

(religious) tolerance, 238, 247–8, 253
torture, 49, 69–71, 73–4, 79,

119–20, 130, 183

U
United National Party, 20, 23, 33

V
violence, 1–2, 4, 6, 8–12, 21–2,

26–7, 29–32, 34–5, 42n1,
46, 48–50, 57–8, 64–71,
74–6, 76n18, 78–82, 97n6,
103–4, 114, 116, 118–19,
122, 124–5, 129–31,
171–3, 182, 185–90,
200n11–12, 208, 211,
216–19, 223–4, 226

W
Wahhabi, 19, 29, 31
Wahhabism, 29, 31

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