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Table of Contents
                            Linux Installation and Getting Started
	Contents
	Preface
	Conventions
	Chapter 1 - Introduction to Linux
	Chapter 2 - Obtaining and Installing Linux
	Chapter 3 - Linux Tutorial
	Chapter 4 - System Administration
	Chapter 5 - The X Window System
	Chapter 6 - Networking
	Appendix A - Sources of Linux Information
	Appendix B - FTP Tutorial and Site List
	Appendix C - The GNU General Public License
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Linux Installation and Getting Started
1992–1998 Matt Welsh

Phil Hughes
David Bandel

Boris Beletsky
Sean Dreilinger
Robert Kiesling
Evan Liebovitch

Henry Pierce

Version 3.2, 20 February 1998.

This book is meant for UNIX novices and gurus alike. It contains information on
how to obtain Linux, software installation, a tutorial for new Linux users, and an
introduction to system administration. It is meant to be general enough to be appli-
cable to any distribution of Linux.

You may freely copy and redistribute this book under certain conditions. Please
see the copyright and distribution statement.

Page 2

Names of all products herein are used for identification purposes only and are trademarks
and/or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Specialized Systems Consultants,
Inc., makes no claim of ownership or corporate association with the products or companies
that own them.
Copyright c
1992-1996 Matt Welsh
Copyright c
1998 Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc (SSC)

P.O. Box 55549
Seattle, WA 98155-0549
USA
Phone: +1-206-782-7733
Fax: +1-206-782-7191
E-mail: [email protected]
URL: http://www.ssc.com/

Linux Installation and Getting Startedis a free document; you may reproduce and/or modify it
under the terms of version 2 (or, at your option, any later version) of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation.

This book is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; with-
out even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PUR-
POSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details, in Appendix C.

The authors encourage wide distribution of this book for personal or commercial use, provided
the above copyright notice remains intact and the method adheres to the provisions of the GNU
General Public License (see Appendix C). In summary, you may copy and distribute this book free
of charge or for a profit. No explicit permission is required from the author for reproduction of this
book in any medium, physical or electronic.

Note, derivative works and translations of this documentmustbe placed under the GNU General
Public License, and the original copyright notice must remain intact. If you have contributed new
material to this book, you must make the source code (e.g., LATEX source) available for your revi-
sions. Please make revisions and updates available directly to the document maintainers, Specialized
Systems Consultants. This will allow for the merging of updates and provide consistent revisions to
the Linux community.

If you plan to publish and distribute this book commercially, donations, royalties, and/or printed

copies are greatly appreciated by the authors and the Linux Documentation Project. Contributing in

this way shows your support for free software and the Linux Documentation Project. If you have

questions or comments, please contact SSC.

Page 171

154 Linux Tutorial

The type of shell you decide to use is mostly a religious issue. Some folks prefer
the Bourne shell syntax with the advanced features ofbash , and some prefer the more
structured C shell syntax. As far as normal commands such ascp andls are concerned,
the shell you use doesn’t matter—the syntax is the same. Only when you start to write shell
scripts or use advanced features of a shell do the differences between shell types begin to
matter.

As we discuss the features of the various shells, we’ll note differences between Bourne
and C shells. However, for the purposes of this manual most of those differences are
minimal. (If you’re really curious at this point, read the man pages forbash andtcsh ).

3.8 Wildcards.

A key feature of most Linux shells is the ability to refer to more than one file by name
using special characters. Thesewildcards let you refer to, say, all file names that contain
the character “n”.

The wildcard “* ” specifies any character or string of characters in a file name. When
you use the character “* ” in a file name, the shell replaces it with all possible substitutions
from file names in the directory you’re referencing.

Here’s a quick example. Suppose that Larry has the filesfrog , joe , andstuff in
his current directory.

/home/larry# ls

frog joe stuff

/home/larry#

To specify all files containing the letter “o” in the filename, use the command

/home/larry# ls *o*

frog joe

/home/larry#

As you can see, each instance of “* ” is replaced with all substitutions that match the wild-
card from filenames in the current directory.

The use of “* ” by itself simply matches all filenames, because all characters match the
wildcard.

/home/larry# ls *

frog joe stuff

/home/larry#

Page 341

324 Appendix

OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WAR-
RANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE
OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFEC-
TIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR
OR CORRECTION.

12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO
IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY
WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMIT-
TED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GEN-
ERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT
NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCU-
RATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE
OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN
IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSI-
BILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
APPENDIX: HOW TO APPLY THESETERMS TOYOUR NEW PROGRAMS

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to
the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can
redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the
start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file
should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the program’s name and a brief idea of what it does.Copyright
c
19yyname of author

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Soft-
ware Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITH-
OUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MER-
CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

Page 342

The GNU General Public License 325

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675
Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an

interactive mode:

Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author

Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for

details type ‘show w’. This is free software, and you

are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions;

type ‘show c’ for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts
of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called some-
thing other than ‘show w’ and ‘show c’; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items–
whatever suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if
any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter
the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
‘Gnomovision’ (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into propri-
etary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to
permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use
the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.

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