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                            2012
Lignin and carbon transformation in roots of maize and mixed perennial biofuel crops
	Fritzie Rivas
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Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and

Dissertations

2012

Lignin and carbon transformation in roots of maize
and mixed perennial biofuel crops
Fritzie Rivas
Iowa State University

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Dissertations. 12447.
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Lignin and carbon transformation in roots of maize and mixed perennial biofuel crops




by


Fritzie Ann Rivas





A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE






Major: Soil Science (Soil Chemistry)

Program of Study Committee:
Michael L. Thompson, Major Professor

Matthew Z. Liebman
Thomas E. Loynachan

Daniel C. Olk














Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa

2012

Copyright © Fritzie Ann Rivas, 2012. All rights reserved.

Page 53

49

Table 3.3. CuO lignin monomers in the aboveground and belowground samples

Treatment
CuO

lignin
a


CuO

lignin-C
b


Total V
c
Total C

d
Total S

e


Total


VCS
f



--------g kg-1 sample----- ---------------------------mg/100 mg OC----------------

Aboveground end-season 2009

C2 52a 36a 2.6a 3.9a 4.1a 10.6a

CC 49ab 34ab 2.9a 3.2a 3.8a 9.9a

CCW 47ab 33ab 2.7a 4.0a 4.0a 10.7a

P 38b 26b 2.3a 4.5a 4.0a 10.8a

PF 45ab 31ab 2.4a 4.7a 4.0a 11.2a

Belowground end-season 2009

C2 32a 22a 1.9ab 3.3ab 3.0a 8.2a

CC 32a 22a 1.7ab 3.3a 3.3a 8.4a

CCW 29a 20a 1.6b 3.1ab 3.0a 7.7ab

P 26a 18a 2.6a 2.1c 1.8b 6.5b

PF 28a 19a 2.3ab 2.4bc 2.1b 6.9ab

Belowground mid-season 2010

CC 41a 28a 1.7b 4.9a 3.9a 10.4a

CCW 37a 26a 1.8b 4.4a 3.7a 9.9a

P 26b 18b 2.7a 2.3b 1.8c 6.8b

PF 24b 17b 2.3a 2.3b 2.3b 7.0b

*Mean values (n=4) not connected by a common letter within a column are significantly different (p<0.05)

a. Mass in of all 11 phenols normalized to mass of sample
b. CuO lignin expressed in terms of carbon per kg of sample
c. Total V is the sum of vanillin, vanillic acid and acetovanillone expressed in mg per 100 mg OC
d. Total C is the sum of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid masses expressed in mg per 100 mg OC
e. Total S is the sum of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and acetosyringone
f. Total VCS is the mass in mg of V, C, and S phenols normalized to 100 mg OC

Page 54

50

(Continued)

Table 3.3. CuO lignin monomers in the aboveground and belowground samples

Treatment C/V
g
S/V

h
Ac/Al V

i
Ac/Al S

j


Aboveground end-season 2009

C2 1.5a 1.6a 0.12ab 0.24a

CC 1.1a 1.3a 0.14a 0.25a

CCW 1.6a 1.6a 0.12ab 0.24a

P 2.0a 1.8a 0.13ab 0.26a

PF 2.0a 1.7a 0.12b 0.25a

Belowground end-season 2009

C2 1.9a 1.7a 0.20a 0.19a

CC 2.0a 1.9a 0.21a 0.21a

CCW 1.9a 1.8a 0.22a 0.22a

P 0.8b 0.7b 0.15b 0.19a

PF 1.0b 0.9b 0.16b 0.19a

Belowground mid-season 2010

CC 2.9a 2.3a 0.15b 0.20b

CCW 2.5b 2.1a 0.15b 0.21ab

P 0.9c 0.7c 0.15b 0.21ab

PF 1.0c 1.0b 0.18a 0.24a

*Means not connected by a common letter are significantly different (p<0.05)

g. Mass ratio of cinnamyl phenols to vanillyl phenols
h. Mass ratio of syringyl phenols to vanillyl phenols
i. Mass ratio of acid-to-aldehyde for vanillyl units
j. Mass ratio of acid-to-aldehyde for syringyl units

Page 106

102

Stotzky, G. 1965. Microbial respiration. In: Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L.,

Ensminger, L.E., Clark, F.E. (eds) Agronomy 9, Part 2. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison,

WI. p. 1550-1572.

Thevenot, M., M.-F. Dignac, and C. Rumpel. 2010. Fate of lignins in soils: A review. Soil

Biology & Biochemistry 42:1200-1211.

Tuomela, M., P. Oivanen, and A. Hatakka. 2002. Degradation of synthetic 14C-lignin by

various white-rot fungi in soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34:1613-1620.

Van Soest, P.J. 1994. Lignin. In: Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd ed. Cornell

University Press; Ithaca, NY. p. 177-195.

Yanni, S.F., J.K Whalen, M.J. Simpson, and H.H. Janzen. 2011. Plant lignin and nitrogen

contents control carbon dioxide production and nitrogen mineralization in soils

incubated with Bt and non-Bt corn residues. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 43:63-69.

Zeier, J., and L. Schreiber. 1997. Chemical composition of the hypodermal and endodermal

cell walls and xylem vessels isolated from Clivia miniata. Plant Physiology

113:1223-1231.

Page 107

103

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor,

Dr. Michael L. Thompson. His guidance and support as well as his huge patience have

helped me to learn and enjoy my research more. I also would like to thank my committee

members for they were always available for consultation and for providing me with valuable

discussions: Dr. Matthew Liebman, Dr. Thomas Loynachan, and Dr. Daniel Olk.

I would additionally thank Dr. Daniel Olk for letting me conduct some of my research

experiments in his laboratory, especially to Terry Grimard for the experiment training and

guidance during the instrumentation.

I would like to thank Dr. Ali Tabatabai for his valuable time spent to help and teach

me everything I need to know about soil incubation studies.

I would like to thank Dr. Teresita Chua, my labmates especially to Audrey Pinto and

Horace Tantang, for the great helped in the laboratory as well as for providing a good

working atmosphere.

Finally, I would like to express my thanks to my family and friends who are always

there for me.

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