Download Lehman 1967 Indo-European Linguistics Reader PDF

TitleLehman 1967 Indo-European Linguistics Reader
TagsVowel Linguistics Orthography Alphabet
File Size2.2 MB
Total Pages262
Table of Contents
                            Table of Contents
	Preface
	Editor's Note
	Introduction: W. P. Lehmann
	I. Sir William Jones
	II. Friedrich von Schlegel
		Chapter 1. On the Indic Language in General (pp. 1-3)
		Chapter 2. On the Relationship of Roots (pp. 6-7)
		Chapter 3. Of Grammatical Structure (pp. 27-28; 32-35)
		Chapter 4. Of Two Main Types of Languages according to Their Inner Structure (pp. 44-45)
		Chapter 6. Of the Variety of Related Languages and of Some Peculiar Intermediate Languages (conclusion, pp. 84-86)
	III. Rasmus Rask
		Investigations, pp. 49-51
		Thracian
	IV. Franz Bopp
		Chapter 1. On Verbs in General
		Chapter 2. Conjugation of the Old Indic Language
			Formation of the Present
		Chapter 3. Conjugation of the Greek verbs (61-2)
		Chapter 4. Conjugation of the Latin Verbs (88-89)
		Chapter 5. Conjugation of the Persian Language and the Old Germanic Dialects (116-17)
	V. Jacob Grimm
		A Survey of the Consonants
		Addenda
		Notes
	VI. Wilhelm von Humboldt
		On the Primary Differences between Languages in Accordance with the Purity of Their Principle of Formation
	VII. Rudolf von Raumer
		Foreword
		I. The Natural-historical Determination of Sounds
		II. The Historical-Linguistic Change of Sounds
		III. Which Means Do We Have at Our Command for Investigating Sound Changes?
		IV. The Natural-Scientific Determination of the Aspirates and the Germanic Sound-Shift
		Notes
	VIII. August Schleicher
		Introduction
	IX. C. Lottner
		Notes
	X. Herman Grassman
	XI. Karl Verner
		Notes
	XII. Heinrich Hübschmann
		Part I
		Part II.
		Notes
	XIII. Karl Brugmann
		I. Nasalis Sonans
		Notes
	XIV. Hermann Osthoff and Karl Brugmann
		Notes
	XV. Eduard Sievers
	XVI. Ferdinand de Saussure
		Chapter I. The sonant liquids and nasals.
		1. Sonant liquids.
		Useful designations
	XVII. William Dwight Whitney
		Notes
	XVIII. Eduard Sievers
		I. Present Position, Goals and Methods of Phonetics
		IV. Sound Change and Sound Development
                        
Document Text Contents
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Language Research Center - University of Texas at Austin 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ 2

Preface ......................................................................................................................... 5

Editor's Note ................................................................................................................ 7

Introduction: W. P. Lehmann ..................................................................................... 9

I. Sir William Jones .................................................................................................... 13

II. Friedrich von Schlegel .......................................................................................... 25

Chapter 1. On the Indic Language in General (pp. 1-3) ........................................ 28

Chapter 2. On the Relationship of Roots (pp. 6-7)................................................ 29

Chapter 3. Of Grammatical Structure (pp. 27-28; 32-35) .................................... 30

Chapter 4. Of Two Main Types of Languages according to Their Inner Structure

(pp. 44-45) ............................................................................................................. 32

Chapter 6. Of the Variety of Related Languages and of Some Peculiar

Intermediate Languages (conclusion, pp. 84-86) ................................................. 33

III. Rasmus Rask ....................................................................................................... 34

Investigations, pp. 49-51 ........................................................................................ 36

Thracian ................................................................................................................. 37

IV. Franz Bopp .......................................................................................................... 42

Chapter 1. On Verbs in General ............................................................................. 44

Chapter 2. Conjugation of the Old Indic Language ............................................... 47

Chapter 3. Conjugation of the Greek verbs (61-2) ................................................ 48

Chapter 4. Conjugation of the Latin Verbs (88-89) .............................................. 49

Chapter 5. Conjugation of the Persian Language and the Old Germanic Dialects

(116-17) ................................................................................................................... 50

V. Jacob Grimm .......................................................................................................... 51

A Survey of the Consonants ................................................................................... 54

Addenda ................................................................................................................. 64

Notes ...................................................................................................................... 66

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Language Research Center - University of Texas at Austin 262

found in languages like Danish, which forms its initial tenues very energetically and

with strong aspiration, whereas in medial or final position following a vowel it has

permitted them to sink to fricatives of very little energy or even to disappear

completely.

726. These few examples are sufficient to show that if the concept of the

simplification of pronunciation is to be retained at all, it must be conceived in a very

relative sense (often it will be a question of nothing more than simple fashion). In

general it must be carefully noted that differences in difficulty of producing speech

sounds are extremely minute, and that actual difficulties with regard to imitation

generally exist only with regard to unfamiliar sounds. Just as every part of the human

body is particularly trained through special practice for the one service which it

performs every day, but becomes less suited or even completely useless for other

tasks, so the human speech organs attain a complete mastery of all the articulatory

movements, which are required for one's native language, through the practice in the

production of sounds and groups of sounds in this language which one carries on

continually since childhood. But only of these sounds! After the organs of speech have

received special training for and through the service determined for them, everything

which falls outside the limits of the familiar articulatory movements seems difficult.

Naturally this applies with regard to the sounds of one language as well as another:

the Englishman has the same difficulty in pronouncing the German ch or the uvular

or tongue trilled r or the dorsal d, t as the German speaker has in imitating the

English th or the cerebral r or the cerebral d, t, etc. Such difficulties, however, play a

role of course only in the transfer of a language from one people to another

(accordingly by speech borrowing in the broadest sense of the word).

732. The word sound law, as one sees, is not to be conceived in the sense in which one

speaks of natural laws. It is not meant to imply that under certain given conditions a

certain result must necessarily follow everywhere; but it should merely indicate that,

if somewhere under certain conditions a shift in the manner of articulation has

occurred, the new manner of articulation must be applied without exception in all

instances which are subject to exactly the same conditions.

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