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TitleLeft of Bang
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Total Pages127
Table of Contents
                            Half Title Page
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table Of Contents
	Strangers In Strange Lands
	Paradigm Shift — Jason A. Riley
	I Wish I Had This Before — Patrick Van Horne
Part One: The War Lab
	1. A Marine Called “Chaos”
	2. Left Of Bang
	3. Cooper’s Color Code
	4. Re-Engineering The Toolkit
	5. The Experts
	6. It Works
	7. What Combat Profiling Is
	8. Proactive, Not Reactive
Part Two: Everywhere We Go, There Will Be People
	1. The Dilemma
	2. Paralysis By Analysis
	3. Information Overload
	4. Perfect Decisions Aren’t Possible
	5. The Better Way
	6. Bias For Action
	7. Baselines And Anomalies
	8. Human Universals
Part Three: Detail
	Headline Taken From Newspapers On January 1, 2000:
	1. The Six Domains
	2. The Language Of Profiling
	3. Kinesics
	4. Biometrics
	5. Proxemics
	6. Geographics
	7. Iconography
	8. Atmospherics
Part Four: Taking Action
	1. Deciding To Act
	2. The Combat Rule Of Three
	3. The Three Decisions
Part Five: Applications
	1. Bringing It All Together
	2. Applying Profiling
	3. Establishing Baselines Everywhere You Go
	4. Identifying Key Leaders
	5. Staying Left Of Bang: Attacks From Within
	6. Developing Your Profiling Ability
Back Cover
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Praise for LEFT OF BANG

In an age when America’s technological edge has eroded in military matters, Van Horne and Riley have written a compelling and
detailed outline for continued American adaptation through improved tactical cunning. Using timeless and proven techniques that can put
American troops above and beyond enemy capabilities, the tactical awareness they outline is stripped of mystery and presented in a
compelling manner. Throughout history we have seen skilled warriors defeat enemies who are more numerous or less trained. At a time
when we must adapt to the changing character of conflict, this is a serious book on a serious issue that can give us the edge we need.

—General James Mattis, USMC, Ret.

offers a crisp lesson in survival in which Van Horne and Riley affirm a compelling truth: It's better to detect sinister
intentions early than respond to violent actions late. helps readers avoid the bang.

—Gavin de Becker,
bestselling author of

Rare is the book that is immediately practical and interesting. accomplishes this from start to finish. There is something
here for everyone in the people business and we are all in the people business.

—Joe Navarro,
bestselling author of

is a highly important and innovative book that offers a substantial contribution to answering the challenge of Fourth
Generation War (4GW). In 4GW, once “bang” has happened, the state has failed and its legitimacy is further eroded. All “first response”
is too late. The state's focus must be prevention, and suggests concrete ways “bang” can be prevented.

—William S. Lind,
author of

is born from the blood and fire lessons of Marines in combat. The learning curve is short in the fight and failure often
means death. Seeing, recognizing, and acting on danger before the hammer falls is what is all about. To that end, Patrick
Van Horne and Jason A. Riley have set forth lessons of human ability and conduct in conflict. These actions and concepts apply to each
of us who fight the good fight against enemies who seek our destruction. Whether military, police, or citizen defender, to win the battle
we must find a way to intercept the enemy and deter his plans—a tough challenge against an enemy who is often hiding in plain sight.

contains answers to detection, deterrence, and ultimate victory. This is a warrior's book. Get it, read it, live it.
—Jeff Chudwin, Chief of Police Ret.,

President, Illinois Tactical Officers Association

An amazing book! Applying the lessons learned in the longest war in American history, and building on seminal works like
and , this book provides a framework of knowledge that will bring military, law enforcement and individual citizens to

new levels of survival mindset and performance in life-and-death situations. is an instant classic.
—Lt. Colonel Dave Grossman, U.S. Army Ret.,

author of and

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licking his or her lips.

proximate, adj., 1. next or nearest in space, order, time, etc.
proximity, n., 1. the state or quality of being near.

“Making correct inferences about the imminent behavior of others has adaptive benefits, and
misunderstanding what another individual intends to do can seriously impair survival.”135

The way humans use space to communicate is called proxemics. Like other animals, humans move
toward what they are attracted to and move away from what they fear. For the combat profiler, the
two most significant factors with regard to proxemics are relationship and status. Relationship affects
the distance at which two people will stand. For instance, friends stand closer to one another than
they do with strangers. Status is significant in how people use space to communicate, as subordinates
rarely initiate contact with someone of higher social rank. Understanding relationship and status in a
given situation is critical to making good observations. Two friends who are maintaining a significant
separation from one another may be an anomaly, just as a subordinate initiating contact with a person
of higher status may be an anomaly.

The use of proxemics in combat profiling rests on several key principles:
People are drawn toward things they like, that they are attracted to, that make them feel safe
and comfortable. People avoid and move way from things they dislike, are afraid of, or that
make them feel unsafe and uncomfortable.136
The closer people choose to be, generally the more comfortable those people are with one
People who know each other will stand near each other. In any crowd, people who know each
other will be next to each other, and those people who know each other best will be the
closest to each other.

Proxemics makes it possible for Marines to identify potential threats by observing how others use
space. Proxemics involves two main elements: distance, as it reveals relationships or attitudes, and
movement, as an indicator of intention.

Proxemics provides combat profilers with the ability to evaluate groups of people and determine
significant aspects of the relationships between them and their attitudes toward one another. The
group’s relationships in space provide the observer with a wealth of information about each
individual in the group as well as the group as a whole.

Anthropologist Edward T. Hall has defined four proxemic zones. These zones are the general
distances that people maintain from one another, depending upon their level of comfort with one
another. Although specific distances are culturally dependent, the four zones are still valid ways of
using the distance between people to make a determination about their relationships. Hall’s four zones
are the intimate, the personal, the social, and the public.

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The intimate zone is the area that is closest to the body. It is the space normally reserved only for
people in the closest of relationships.137 Spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends, children, parents, and
very close friends are usually the only people willingly permitted into this area. This area is well
within arm’s reach and provides the most risk for someone to do harm. This is the reason people are
selective about who is granted access into this space.

At times, the intimate zone boundary is crossed without consent. There are many reasons that this
could occur. One of these reasons could be because one person is attempting to establish dominance
over another. Since a proxemic violation “occurs when some actual harm is done by the invasion,”138
the person violating the proxemic boundary may be trying to make the other person feel uncomfortable
and ultimately submissive to either gain or maintain influence. These times when people are forced
into socially “close” situations will cause a limbic system response, as the body prepares to deal
with the threat. A person whose intimate zone has been violated and who feels defensive or
uncomfortable may put up barriers or display pacifying behaviors (kinesics), begin to blush
(biometrics), or move away from the person to re-establish proper separation (proxemics).

There are situations in which violations of the intimate zone become unavoidable, such as on
crowded city streets, in airplanes, elevators, or in professional environments like a doctor’s office, a
beauty parlor, or a barbershop. People are generally acutely aware of invasions, not only because
they don’t want others intruding on their space, but also because they don’t want to violate the space
of others.139 In such situations, there is an expectation that others will make an effort to maintain the
proper distance. When that is not the case, the limbic system recognizes a potential threat and
responds accordingly.

The personal zone is the second smallest circle surrounding a person. It is the space within which
most friends and acquaintances interact.140 This distance is generally about arm’s length and is the
conversational separation at which most daily interaction is conducted. People who operate in this
zone generally have some relationship but are not close enough to allow each other into the intimate

As with the intimate zone, situations arise in which individuals are forced into one another’s
personal zone, such as in shopping malls, restaurants, or public transportation. The kinesic cluster of
interested vs. uninterested will provide confirmation that this boundary has been violated. Signs that
two people are comfortable within each other’s personal zones may be an acknowledgement between
them such as eye contact, nods, feet or torso turning toward the person, or handshakes. If no indicators
of a positive relationship exist, this could indicate that the two are intentionally trying to avoid each

The social and public zones are the two largest zones. These are the distances at which people prefer
to keep strangers.141 The two zones are addressed jointly in this section because both indicate the
same relationship: no relationship. Why do people tend to keep strangers at a distance? Safety. As
distance increases, the options available to an attacker decrease.

For the purposes of combat profiling, the social and public zones are beyond arm’s length.

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* We have purposely kept the report of this interview anonymous to maintain the Marine’s privacy. He is currently a Staff Sergeant
serving at Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA.

* For any picture that is analyzed, we accept that the photo is a moment in time and may not reflect the true behavior the person is
displaying. Pictures are chosen for the instructional value that they provide. More accurate conclusions could be made with video
footage or additional pictures of the person or situation.

* Many pictures of the response to the September 11 attacks in New York City show onlookers with this pose, covering their mouths in

* Although we use the acronym MADE, we’ll discuss the elements in the order EDAM, which is a more natural order for how these
indicators will be observed. EDAM just doesn’t make a good acronym!

* If you don’t have experience in the military, think of the body language that a traffic cop would use to control cars as they pass through
an intersection.

* An example of overt and subtle adoration can be seen in a Taliban video that shows Taliban fighters looting a base from which U.S.
forces had withdrawn (in Kamdesh, Afghanistan). For the video go to, and view the post labeled
“Finding the Leader—Adoration.” At about the four-minute, 40-second mark, a truck drives into the compound, and several
individuals get out. One of the individuals is wearing light brown clothes with a dark brown vest and is carrying a rifle in his left hand.
Soon, all of the Taliban fighters gather around this man and proceed to line up to shake his hand and greet him (overt adoration).
However, if you look closely, a subtle form of adoration occurs when what appears to be his “right-hand man” discreetly takes the
rifle from the leader so that he can shake hands and hug the fighters.

* Mimicry is not inevitable between people, and there will be times when “counter-mimicry” is used by people who take deliberate action
not to mimic the behavior of those surrounding them.

* The ten-year milestone is derived by taking what researchers have determined as ten thousand hours of practicing a complex task to
gain true expertise (Gladwell, Outliers, p. 40). Ten thousand hours is divided into practicing a task three hours a day every day for ten

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