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TitleLearning Managers in a Transforming Economy
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Table of Contents
The training of managers
	1.1.	“Management” as a concept
	1.2.	Formal training of managers
	1.3.	Informal training of managers
Main stages of development of the theory and practice of management, training of management
	2.1.	Periodization of development of management
	2.2.	The fragmentary – syncretic period
	2.3.	The rational – economic period
	2.4.	The social period
	2.5.	The psychological period
	2.6.	The entrepreneurship period
	2.7.	The innovative – information period
The development of management in Russia: theory, practice, training
	3.1.	Preconditions for the development 
of management in Russia
	3.2.	Management in the first decades 
of the Soviet era
	3.3.	Evolution of management 1950–1970
	3.4.	Management in the last decade 
of the Soviet era
	3.5.	Features of the development of management during radical social and economic reforms
	3.6.	Internationalization of the training 
of managers in modern Russia
Conditions and tendencies in the development of Russian education, 
in the formal training of managers
	4.1.	The new paradigm of education, 
an assessment of its efficiency
	4.2.	Basic tendencies in the dynamics of Russian higher education, training of managers
	4.3.	Educational level of Russian managers, 
present conditions and dynamics
Modern conditions and tendencies in the development of informal training of managers
	5.1.	Functions and content of informal training 
of managers
	5.2.	Tendencies in the dynamics of formalized practices of workplace learning
	5.3.	Practice of firm management as a source 
of informal managerial training
Preconditions for the further development of informal and formal training
	6.1.	Basic tendencies in the economic development 
of the region, innovative sphere
	6.2.	Economic and organizational development 
of industrial firms in the region
	6.3.	Shadow practices of management and prospects of training development
Informal education
	7.1.	Network resources for the informal training 
of managers
	7.2.	Preconditions for the further development 
of informal training of managers
	7.3.	Efficiency of informal training of managers
General preconditions for the further development of the formal training 
of managers
	8.1.	General characteristics of the transformation 
in Russian education
	8.2.	Productivity of formal training
	8.3.	Productivity of the formal education of managers for the establishment of principles 
of sustainable development in the economy
	8.4.	Productivity of hybrid education
Document Text Contents
Page 1


Learning Managers
in a Transforming Economy

To be presented, with the permission of

the board of the School of Social Sciences and Humanities
of the University of Tampere,

for public discussion in the Lecture Room Linna K 103,
Kalevantie 5, Tampere

on March 9th, 2012, at 12 o’clock.


The Case of Russia 1999 – 2006

Page 2

Bookshop TAJU
P.O. Box 617
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Tel. +358 40 190 9800
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[email protected]

Cover design by
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Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 1709
ISBN 978-951-44-8741-5 (print)
ISSN-L 1455-1616
ISSN 1455-1616

Acta Electronica Universitatis Tamperensis 1177
ISBN 978-951-44-8742-2 (pdf )
ISSN 1456-954X

Tampereen Yliopistopaino Oy – Juvenes Print
Tampere 2012

University of Tampere
School of Social Sciences and Humanities

Copyright ©2012 Tampere University Press and the author

Page 129


only 66.6% of them are free of racketeering. Small enterprises are most vulnerable;
only 63% are free of it.

Russian managers often recognize that their firms do not comply with
obligations to partners, see Table 6.34 of Appendix 3. The advantages of the joint
ventures are absolutely clear. They appear according to the leaders to have acquired
principles of responsibility from western management culture. Absolutely all of them
report confidence in their own reliability in its fulfillment of their obligations. Private
firms appear slightly less reliable; 76.4% of them are sure of their readiness to avoid
the non-fulfillment of their obligations. For state firms, this parameter is even more
modest, with a value of 72.8%. Privatized firms appear to be the most unreliable, likely
to opt out according to their own estimation; only 61.5% of them are fully prepared
not to break their obligations. Small enterprises, according to their partner reliability,
occupy a mid-position, as 73.9% of them are sure of their responsible position.

If we construct a general table for each pattern of ownership given all kinds of
deviant behavior, the result is 6.35.

Table 6.35
Hierarchy of patterns of ownership on the level of “aggregate deviation”

D1* D2* D3* D4* D5* D6* D7* D8* Final place
Joint ventures 1 4 2 2 4 2 1 1 17
Privatized 2 1 1 4 2 1 3 4 18
State 3 3 3 1 1 4 2 3 20
Private from the beginning 4 2 4 3 3 3 4 2 25
Pearson’s contingency
coefficient (Р) 0.177 0.117 0.151 0.001 0.115 0.085 0.104 0.078

* Types of deviation (D1–D8) are listed in Table 6.26.

From these data, it is evident that joint ventures have some kind of advantage in present
Russian conditions. They are exemplary in their loyalty. Privatized firms are close to
them, and state firms slightly behind them. Firms private from the moment of their
creation are disposed to deviance.

For modern Russian business, the influence of western management culture
is an important reference point, possibly to be emulated in the future. For Western
businessmen, a clean reputation is more important. The demonstration of real
profitability from such a style of behavior in business offers very significant support to
Russian business.

In addition, the above-mentioned beneficial role of joint ventures is the most
innovative one. For the last two to three years, 77.8% of all the joint ventures were
in principle capable of introducing a new product. Private enterprises are a little less
active in the adoption of new products at 66%; state firms are even less active at 63.6%.
The most passive are privatized firms; only 61.8% of them have introduced product

Privatized firms are also freer from deviant behavior in comparison with the
average statistics of the firms. This is explained by the fact that, before privatization,

Page 130


such firms were more developed technologically than others, and thus they had the
best market opportunities. Until now they have counted on technological development
rather than on the extension of their ‘shadow’ capabilities. Firms which have remained
in state ownership are in the worst situation. However, the greatest ‘shaded’ activity
is characteristic of firms that have been private since their creation. They were also
compelled to use the capabilities of the shadow economy. This has formed a standard
of business behaviour.

Probably, for future decades of business life in Russia, it will be necessary to
struggle with this standard that has already been formed. If one is to make a total
evaluation of how strongly a pattern of ownership influences the firms’ level of
deviation, the conclusion is clear. This factor is weaker than the innovation activity´
of the firm. Differences in the level of deviance between firms of different patterns of
ownership are not so very distinct, whereas the differences in deviance between active-
innovative and passive-innovative firms are absolutely clear.

Contingency of deviance of firms in various branches
The relationship between the deviance of business behavior of the firm and the branch
the firm belongs to is even less clearly expressed. We have undertaken the first attempts
to analyze this correlation. As a first approximation it proved rather difficult to follow
the logic of what types of deviance are more common in the different branches. We
plan to continue this kind of analysis in the very near future. We may be able to find
some interdependencies and to give an explanation for them. For the moment, we
present Table 6.36, giving the distribution of only one, the most frequent type of
deviant behaviour ´Making fictitious (bogus) contracts to evade tax payments´ by

Table 6.36
Making fictitious (bogus) contracts to evade tax payments (in %)

It can be

It is
inevitable Total

Wholesale 25.0 15.0 20.0 10.0 30.0 100.0
Finance and insurance 25.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 50.0 100.0
Engineering and metal working,
electrotechnicals and electronics 8.0 24.0 28.0 20.0 20.0 100.0
Food-processing, light industry 0.0 46.2 23.1 0.0 30.8 100.0
Information services, education, science, culture 14.3 9.5 14.3 14.3 47.6 100.0
Construction 10.0 0.0 40.0 10.0 40.0 100.0
Transportation 0.0 12.5 25.0 50.0 12.5 100.0
Power engineering, metallurgy, wood industry,
furniture, 0.0 0.0 46.7 33.3 20.0 100.0
Retail trade and catering 0.0 0.0 25.0 25.0 50.0 100.0

Pearson’s contingency coefficient Р = 0.0292

It was somewhat unexpected that wholesale and retail trades appeared to be polarized.
Whereas the wholesale branch, among the branches of the city economy surveyed, is a

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