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Hindu places of worship. called temples. are founded by Hindu
Kings., Rajahs, Great saint, and religious minded god worshippers
during the last seven centuries. Most of the temples in TamilNadu
were built thousand of years ago and the kalassams on the top of the
temple gopuram is made of valuable metals/ These metals are now are
valued crores of rupees. The temple so founded in ancient times were
gifted with substantial properties/ To manage these properties and to
carry on the administration of temples trusts were created. Those who
founded these temples became Hereditary trustee. With the passage
of time. constant invasion of our land by foreigners and with politics
taking root in these areas. temple properties were slowly eaten by third
parties and there was need to seek money even to maintain the temple
poojas. It was the time when there was united Madras province and
Madras province consisted of THE PRESENT Tamil Nadu, Andra,
Orrisa, Kannada and Kerala States.

Therefore for the first time it was thought that an enactment is
required to protect the temple properties / When the Panama Raja ad-
ministration came to office under the 1919 Government of Indian Act.
s comprehensive law was enabled and a Hindu Religious Endowments
Board was constituted under the Hindu Religious Endowment Act
1927. Presidents were appointed as President of the Hindu Religious
Endowments Act. Government gave repayable grants to the Board to
carry on the religious functions in temples and the advances made by
the Government gave repayable grants to the Board to carry on the
religious functions in temples and the advances made by the Govern-
ment were repaid to Government Inter. The concept and draft of the
Hindu Religious Endowments Act was the result of R.V.Krishnan Ayyar
who was then the Secretary of the Madras Legislative Council. When
Sri.T.M.Narayanswamy Pillai, who was a criminal lawyers from Trichi
became the President of the Hindu Religious Endowments Board. he
thought there should be some sort of state central of the administra-
tion of the religious institutions. It was a time when there was British
Administration in 1040. It was the time when R.V.Krishnan Ayyar was
secretary to government in charge of Education and public health and
the Endowments Board came under his control. Narayanaswamy Pillai;

ADMINISTRATION OF
HINDU TEMPLES

Dr.R.K.BALASUBRAMANIAM
Senior ADVOCATE

Dr. R. K. Balasubramaniam has born on 02.04.1928, English
Calendar and 7th March Tamil Calendar Mr. Balasubramaniam
completed 86 and entering 87. He has made massive contribution
for the correct parliamentary system and he is considered and expert
parliamentary law. Even today write articles to magazine and papers
and he is quiet alert. Large numbers of parliamentarians, legislators
and public are come to him for consultations. He is also written
number of books on law.

Lawyers Line wishes him a long healthy and prosperous life and
full of useful society.

The NOBLE - 87 - We Honour

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prevailed on the Government, to examine how
best the administration can be brought under
the control of the Government. The Madras
Government then appointed R.V.Krishnan
Ayyar was the special Officer to examine the
issue . It was in 1941, R.V.Krishnan Ayyar
recommended that there can be a direct
control over the administration of Hindu
Religious Institution and there should be a
Area Committee to be constituted to select
the Trustees for the temple and to manage
the temples. The Government accepted the
report of R.V.Krishna Ayyar and constituted
a committee with Sir P.Venkatrama Rao,
former judge of the Madras High Court,
Rajah Sir Muthia Chettiar as member and
R.V.KrishnaAyyar as Member Secretary. The
then President of the Religious Endowments
Board. T.M.ChenniaPillai was directed to co-
ordinate with the committees. It was the time
C.Raajagopalachari Ministry resigned in the
wake of the Congress Resolution asking the
Constar’s Ministry to resign and the Congress
refused to co-operate with the British in the
Second World war with the British Govern-
ment. Madras Province was then under the
Governors rule. The government passed order
some time in 1945 converting the Religious
Endowments Board into an Hindu Religious
administration department and appointed
T.M.Chenniah Pillai as the Commissioner
of the Hindu Religious endowments depart-
ment.¬

After India became independent ,Hindu
Religious endowments department, was
enlarged and made into an Hindu Religious
Endowments and Charitable administration
Department. Thus charitable institutions who
are not religious in character was brought
und¬er the control of this administration De-
partment. After the congress faced reverse in
the elections and other parties came to power,
Hereditary Trustees were removed and the
government took power to appointment he
Chair Person for the trustees. With political
power taking over the administration of the
Hindu Religious and Charitable endowments,
persons not religiously inclines were made
Chairperson and members of these temples.
Thus a division was made between the admin-
istration of the funds of the temples and the
administrate on of the rituals in the temple.
But slowly, interventions and interfearances
has crept ion the temple administration. The
temple administration has now become an
income earning department. as any other de-
partment of government. Under this act all the
religious institutions come under the control

of the department and if any one seeks that
the temple is his family one, he should file an
application to the HRCE administration and
get an judicial order to it> the is a judicial
commissioner functioning under the ant as
part of the HRCE administration. One should
get an order that a particular temple is outside
the scope of the HRCE Act.

Of that person who have no belief and
who have no faith in God are being appointed
as the Trustees of the temples. This is totally
wrong. Only Hindus who have faith in god
should be asked to trustees of temples. Only
those people will do the duty with devotion
to god. Of late I am told that J.Jayalalitha
amma Government has issued orders that
only those who have faith in God should be
made trustees of temples. This is correct.

The Hindu Religious Endowments Act
has abolished the Devadasi system,-when
girls are made to dance before idols when
they are taken out. But now the temples are
accommodating not only music but dances
also. Such performance inside the temple
makes it difficult to worshippers and the
crowds which come to attend these music
and dance performances disturb the wor-
shippers.

Religious institutions are divided into
regular religious institutions where any per-
son can worship and there are denominational
institutions which is managed by only those
denomination group. In these temples visitors
may be regulated. But still they are answer-
able to the department.

In English History, Martin Luther op-
posed the Roman Church during the time
when Henry the Eight was the King of
England It was he time when Thomas Wolcy
was the Prime Minister for Henry the Eight.
Wolcy wrote a book strongly criticising
other and praising the Roman Church. Wolsy
published the book in the name of the King
of England Henry the Eidth The Roman
Church was impressed about the publica-
tion and thus conferred on Henry the Edith
the title of ‘DEFENDER OF THE FAITH’.
This title is hereditary and even to day the
British Queen so referred to as, Queens of
England Defender of the Faith. Thus it was
R.V.Krishna Ayyar who conceived the idea of
a legislation to protect the properties of Hindu
temples .Who as special officer examined
the Hindu Religious Endowments act and
wanted steps to be taken to safeguard the
properties of temples and thus R.V.Krisna
Ayyar should be considered as the Defender
of the Hindu Faith.

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