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TitleLanguage Regimes in Transformation: Future Prospects for German and Japanese in Science, Economy, and Politics (Contributions to the Sociology of Language 93)
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Table of Contents
Notes on the contributors
On language policy in the age of globalization with good governance
	1. Globalization with good governance
		1.1. Conceptualizing globalization
		1.2. Defining “good governance”
		1.3. The “third ways” of government
	2. Language policy
		2.1. Two aspects of language
		2.2. A new concept of bilingualism
		2.3. A third-ways language policy
	3. Third-way language policy in future Japan
		3.1. Problems with kokugo or “national (identity) language”
		3.2. Tentative proposals
		3.3. Final remarks
Thrifty monolingualism and luxuriating plurilingualism?
	1. The world of languages
	2. Language reduction
	3. Individualisation and plurilingualism
	4. Loss of range
	5. Colonization and post-colonialism
	6. Internal expansion of range
	7. Structural changes
	8. “Globalization”
	9. Economy
	10. Monolingualism as an economic goal
	11. The scholarly neglect of plurilingualism
	12. The teleological function of language
	13. The gnoseological function of language
	14. The communitarian function of language
	15. Linguistic “luxury” as a necessary good
Challenges for language policy in today’s Japan
	1. Increasing ethnic diversity
	2. Writing and technology
	3. The teaching of other languages in Japan
	4. Conclusion
Is the promotion of languages such as German and Japanese abroad still appropriate today?
	1. The goals of policies of promoting a language abroad
	2. The status of languages such as German and Japanese in today’s world
	3. The advantages of having a single language for communication worldwide and of limiting foreign languages studies to just one language
	4. The problems for language communities like those of German and Japanese of having a single language for communication worldwide and of limiting foreign language studies to a single language (English)
	5. Are language alliances between countries with the same language interests an adequate answer?
Japanese and German language education in the UK: problems, parallels, and prospects
	1. Introduction
	2. Languages in UK higher education: the current paradox
		2.1. The decline in specialist language degrees
		2.2. Language provision for all
	3. Reasons for the decline in demand for specialist language degrees
		3.1. Languages at school level
	4. German and Japanese: past and present
		4.1. German
		4.2. Japanese
		4.3. Students’ attitudes towards German and Japanese
			4.3.1. German
			4.3.2. Japanese
	5. Changes in higher education
	6. Situation in other countries
	7. Future prospects
	8. Conclusion
Changing economic values of German and Japanese
	Introduction: the perspective of econolinguistics
	1. The status of German and Japanese in the world today
	2. Three factors of the language market
		2.1. Population of speakers
		2.2. The economic power of languages
		2.3. The cultural level or information quantity
		2.4. Individual contributions to the market value of languages
	3. The decline of German in modern Japan
	4. The future of German and Japanese
		4.1. “English imperialism”
		4.2. Regional economic areas and the German and Japanese languages
		4.3. Automatic translation
		4.4. A positive aspect: the pie of foreign language learning will become bigger
			4.4.1. The trend towards higher education
			4.4.2. Increase of multilingual usage
	5. By way of conclusion: a bright future
The debate on English as an official language in Japan
	1. Introduction
	2. The proposal
	3. The arguments of the opponents
	4. Language ideological notions underlying the opponents’ arguments
	5. Language regimes in transformation
Remains of the day: language orphans and the decline of German as a medical lingua franca inJ apan
	1. Introduction
	2. The handover from Chinese to Dutch to German
	3. German in Japanese medicine
	4. Thinking local, writing global
	5. The end of the road for German
	6. Remains of the day: the language orphans
	7. Factors influencing the decline of German
		7.1. Finance: deletion of German from library collections
		7.2. Medical training
		7.3. The internationalization of German medicine
		7.4 Language barrier free Germany
		7.5. Spread of English
		7.6. A shift of emphasis to special-purpose medical Japanese
	8. The empires strike back
	9. Closing
The case for choice – language preferences in Japanese academic publishing
	1. Introduction
	2. Default choice
	3. Japanese as the default choice in science and politics
	4. Academic publishing in Japan: the case of Tokyo University
	5. Procedure
	6. Methodological problems
	7. Results
	8. Discussion
Tokio or Tokyo? Dschudo or Judo? On writing foreign names
	1. Why problems at all?
	2. Graphemic unity or diversity?
	3. Good style
	4. Continuous change
	5. Conclusion
Effects of globalization on minority languages in Europe – focusing on Celtic languages
	1. The effects of globalization on minority languages
	2. The 25 member-state EU and official languages
	3. The 25-member EU and minority languages
	4. Devolution and regional languages and cultures in Britain
		4.1. Great Britain and minority languages
		4.2. Wales
		4.3. Scotland
	5. Conclusion
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Language Regimes in Transformation

Page 2

Contributions to the Sociology of Language



Joshua A. Fishman

Mouton de Gruyter
Berlin • New York

Page 114

102 Fumio Inoue


information, individual contributions are likewise highly variable. A best-
selling author can have a considerable impact, for example. In the past,
authors such as Kant, Goethe, Thomas Mann and other scholars and novel-
ists surely helped to increase the number of foreign learners of German. By
comparison, Chinese and Japanese writers were less influential in terms of
attracting foreigners to study Chinese and Japanese in order to read original
literary and philosophical texts without translation.

Ratio of Publication by Languages

























Figure 4.

For a country’s literary works to become known abroad they must first be
translated. Market principles make themselves felt here, too. Even where
the lofty domains of the human spirit are concerned, we cannot get past the
economy. The ranking of the languages of the world can be better ex-
plained by paying due attention to the economy of culture.

To conclude this section, on the basis of the three factors consid-
ered above it can be said that at present the position of German and
Japanese in the ranking of the world’s languages is similar.

3. The decline of German in modern Japan

Next, let us consider the status of German in Japan. The decline of German
in Japan has often been discussed, and it has been analysed from various
points of view in Ammon (1994), among others. Additional examples will
be examined on the basis of more recent data. Historically, German was

Page 115

Changing economic values 103


second only to English as a foreign language in higher education. Data
about foreigners hired by the Japanese government (oyatoi gaikokujin) at
the end of 19th century shows that most of them came from English speak-
ing countries (Inoue 2001b). At the same time, it is significant that many
Japanese professors who were allowed to study abroad went to Germany.
Germany was especially popular among medical doctors and scientists.
Prior to World War II, many famous scholars such as Mori Ogai, Saito
Mokichi and Kitazato Shibasaburo obtained degrees from German universi-

In the past, the order of most frequently studied foreign language in Ja-
pan was English first, then German and French. After World War II it
changed to English, French and then German. The Japanese Ministry of
Education and Science has repeatedly conducted surveys of foreign lan-
guage teaching at the university level. According to the data presented in
Figure 5, Chinese overtook German in 2003, and the order became English,
Chinese, German and French. This is because the number of private univer-
sities offering Chinese exceeded that of those offering German. In public
and national universities the order of most frequently studied foreign lan-
guages is still English, German, French and then Chinese6. There have been
no changes here. However, private universities are more sensitive to market
forces and public demand in language education.

English has been virtually the only foreign language taught in Japanese
high schools for some time. However, according to a recent survey by the
Ministry of Education and Science7, a certain number of high schools offer
classes in other foreign languages. In 2003, the order of foreign languages
besides English taught in high school was Chinese, French, Korean, Span-
ish and German. In 1993, German was still in third place, but during the
decade that followed it was overtaken first by Korean and then by Spanish.

As shown in Figure 6, already in the 1990s, the order of languages
taught at private language schools was English in first place and Chinese
second. The recent popularity of Chinese is also observed in Western and
Asian countries; students of Japanese are declining, while the numbers
learning Chinese are increasing. This global popularity of Chinese corre-
sponds to the economic development of China in recent years.

Page 227

Index 215


status 55–57, 98, 99, 116, 193, 195,
of English 59
of German 96
of Japanese 96

status planning 95
Stockholm syndrome 121
Strubell, Miquel 194, 204
Suzuki, Mishio 117, 124, 137
Suzuki, Tessa 44, 51
Suzuki, Takao 116–118, 121–125,

127, 133, 136, 137
Suzuki, Yoshisato 116, 118, 119,

135, 138
Swaan, Abram de 3, 16, 159, 172
Swedish 102, 192

Tai, Erika 131, 138
Tamil 118
Tanaka, Akio 41, 51
Tanaka, Katsuhiko 116, 120, 124,

125, 131, 138
Tanaka, Shinya 124, 138
teaching Japanese 82, 83
technology 29, 34, 39f., 43, 47, 101,

116, 119
Terazawa, Yoshio 117, 138
Thomas, George M. 38, 47
Thompson, J.B. 125, 138
Tibetan script 178
TOEFL 117, 121
Trabant, Jürgen 170, 172
transcription 177, 180, 181, 184–

transcription problems 174
transcription systems 175, 189
transliteration 178
Treitschke, Heinrich von 53

Tsuda, Yukio 116, 120–122, 124,
126, 127, 138

Tsunoda, Minoru 106, 113

universal grammar 28, 155
universal language ability 20
Urdu 58

Vaillancourt, François 158, 171
Valencian 196
vernacular language 29
Verschueren, Jef 126, 132
vitality of German 110
vitality of Japanese 110
voice recognition 42

Walvoort, HC. 151, 152, 153
Watts, Catherine 75, 76, 80, 81, 92
Watanabe, Shichi 121, 138
Weinrich, Harald 170, 172
Welsh 197f.
Welsh Assembly 199, 200, 204
Whorf, Benjamin Lee 126, 138
Whitney, Dwight William 121, 139
Winkmann, G. 151, 153
Wieviorka, Michel 191, 205
Williams, Collin H. 198, 204
women’s language 127
word processing 40
working language 193, 194, 197
world communication 96
world citizen 119
world economy 86
world language 61, 62
world language of trade 27
world market 25
world society 31
world trade 58
Wright, Sue 7–10, 17

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