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Page 1

Kodak’s Ergonomic Design
for People at Work

Kodak’s Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Second Edition. The Eastman Kodak Company
Copyright © 2004 Eastman Kodak Company.

Page 2

Second Edition

The Eastman Kodak Company

Design for
People at Work

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Page 361

336 Kodak’s Ergonomic Design for People at Work

Just because a code exists does not mean that it should necessarily be used
unless it supports the objective of the control.

CODE SELECTION Certain basic coding principles should be followed in the
selection of codes:

◆ Use natural coding dimensions. Most features that can serve as codes
have natural aspects, which can be used to advantage (blue for cold, red
for hot). To violate natural expectations can lead to errors.

◆ Use learned associations. Every user has already learned certain codes.
These codes can, therefore, be used to advantage in coding.

◆ Use intuitive rather than arbitrary codes. An arbitrary code taxes the
user’s memory. For example, as a code for “print,” 2 is harder to
remember than PR.

◆ Keep coding consistent across the control set. Codes should not change
from one control to another. Once a code has been established, it should
remain consistent across the system.

◆ Avoid overuse of codes. The use of excessive coding will increase the
probability of error.

Color Codes. Using color to convey meaning depends on the operator’s
ability to identify a particular color each time he or she sees it. Generally,
people can identify no more than nine different colors with any precision.

Color is probably the most abused type of coding. If not applied correctly,
color can actually impede the operator’s use of the display. To avoid abuse, it
is best to design controls first without any color codes. Color should be added
only to enhance the coding. All color coding should be redundant. It should
not serve as basic coding but should enhance some other coding technique. Do
not design color coding in a way that keeps people with color vision deficiency
from safely using the control.

Shape Codes. Geometric shapes for controls can be used effectively as
codes, especially for identification of components and their operational status.


Feedback is essential in any type of control process. Without feedback, it is
impossible for the operator to know whether the system has received the com-
mand. Therefore, every control input by the operator should have an obvious
and natural response that should leave no doubt in the operator’s mind that
the system has received the command.

NEGATIVE RESPONSE Lack of response does not constitute acceptable feed-
back. Such feedback can also mean that the system has crashed, is not listening
to inputs, or is overloaded.

Page 362

4. Equipment Design 337

RESPONSE TIME Basic feedback—for example, a response to common control
inputs—should appear to be instantaneous (0.1 sec). It should happen simul-
taneously as the input. A time lapse of more than 2 seconds between input and
response of some kind is unacceptable when the operator must remember data
or is involved in problem solving with the computer.

Error Messages and Error Handling

High-quality error messages may have a very positive effect on system control.
Effective error messages can allow the operator to recover quickly from an
input error. Good error messages can improve productivity, reducing errors
and minimizing the negative effects of errors.

Control Integration

When operators look at a set of controls (particularly on a CRT), they should
be able not only to understand what each control does, but to know immedi-
ately how that control fits into the remainder of the control system. If opera-
tors need to move quickly and without error from one control to another (par-
ticularly if located on different CRT pages), they must have a good grasp of
the overall continuity by which the controls have been arranged. The follow-
ing principles provide relevant guidance. They describe integration techniques
that assist an operator to quickly and correctly move from one control to the
next independent of their physical or virtual location. These principles are
based on the techniques used by motion picture editors to provide transition
from one scene to the next.

WIDE ANGLE This integration principle gives the operator an overview of all
the stations and their relative location. A wide-angle display of controls might
serve as a high-level menu, but it must be more than merely a list of all the con-
trols or types of controls. It must show the interrelationship of the controls so
that it gives the operator a clear picture of where controls are and how the
operator can get to where he or she wants to be in the control set.

LANDMARKS A landmark is a feature of an individual display that links the
individual controls on that display with others in the set. In a film, a landmark
is something in the background, such as a building or a mountain, that estab-
lishes the location of a scene for the viewer.

Landmarks in a control system can be any detail of the system that the
operator will immediately recognize. It might be a building or a key piece of
equipment. Once the operator recognizes a landmark, he or she can easily
determine where to look next or where to find the appropriate control.

A landmark need not be directly on the control. It may be a peripheral
item. For example, a menu that varies as a function of the control can serve as
a good landmark.

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instrument, 286–290
light, 285–286

Visual display terminals (VDTs), 284
ANSI standard for, 82
electronic, 290–294
factors in setup of, 210
and lighting, 574
surface for, 212–213
workplace dimensions for, 214, 215

Visual field size, 228–230
Visual inspection tasks, 463, 469–485

defect rate, 480-418, 483
guidelines to improve performance,

individual factors in, 470–473
lighting for, 575–576
measures of performance of, 470, 471
organizational factors in, 481, 483–484
physical/environmental factors in, 473–

task factors in, 478–482

Visual mode displays, 283, 284
Visual perception, 41–42
Visual targets, 233–234
Visual task workplace design, 228–234
Visual warnings, 384–386
Visual work, 228–234

angle of vision for, 230–233
distance to object in, 233
field size for, 228–230
lighting for, 565–566
target size in, 233–234

VM, see Vertical distance

(maximum oxygen consumption), 443

Voice (computer input device), 326–328
Voice recognition systems, 327–328
Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) (OSHA),

VWF, see Vibration-induced white finger

Walking, 235, 446, 522
Walls, 570, 571, 575
Wallboard handling, 551–552
Walsh-Healy Act, 422
Warm discomfort, 595, 604–607
Warning (term), 385, 387
Warnings design, 382–392

auditory, 386–392
and instructional information, 394–395
visual, 384–386

Washing machine case study, 641–643
Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act

(WISHA), 165
Washington State Ergonomics Standards, 81
Waste carts, 554

on floors, 238–239
on stairs, 243

Water bottles handling, 546–548
WBGT, see Wet bulb globe temperature

anthropometric data for, 49, 51
of body parts, 439
dead, handling principle, 514
of equipment, 270, 272
of hand tools, 351
of power tools, 352
recommended limits on, see Recommended

weight limit
for two-person lifting tasks, 516

Weighting, scale, 359–361
Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT),

Wet bulb temperature, 592, 593
Wheelchairs, 197, 240
Wheels on handtrucks and carts, 556, 557
White noise, 580, 678
Whole body:

aerobic work capacities of, 67, 68, 71, 72
heat exchange for the, 589–591
pulling strength of, 65, 69, 70

Whole-body fatigue, 115, 438, 444, 445
Whole-body vibration, 83, 618, 626, 627
Whole-body work, 678
Wide-angle displays, 293, 337, 338
Winch, powered, 556
Wind chill index, 614–616

and heat loss, 604
and lighting, 571, 572

WISHA Hand-Arm Vibration Analysis,

WISHA (Washington Industrial Safety and
Health Act), 165

carrying task tables for, 154
horizontal pushing tables for, 155–156
lifting/lowering tables for, 152, 153
pulling tables for, 157–158

Work, 678
Workbenches, 218–219, 547
Work capacities, 435–436
Work cycle, 679
Work design, 411–499

computer workplaces, 497–499
construction industry, 485–495
ergonomic, 435–449
and hours of work, 421–435
laboratory, 496–497
organizational factors in, 411–421
repetitive, 449–469
visual inspection, 469–485

adjusting relative position of, 251–256
job shop scheduling affecting, 420–421
multiskilled, 448–449
organizational factors as perceived by,

physical fitness improvements in, 447–


Index 703

Page 723

Workers (con’d):
and repetitive work, 452, 454–455,

risk for MSDs in new, 455
selection of, 518–519
shift work and health/safety of, 422–424
training for new, 498
visual inspection task factors of, 470–473

Workforce, design for the, 27–74
anthropometric data in, 46–74
capacity/capability data in, 45
determining audience in, 30–37
disability/reduced work capacity

accommodations in, 37–43
large majority accommodation in, 27–30
lifting task and low back disorders in, 44–47

Workload, 437–438, 602
Work pace, 679
Workpiece/product design, 256–260, 466–467
Workplace, 191–261, 679

accommodations for people with disabilities
in, 39–40

adjustable station, 249–261
case studies of, 635–638
catch trough in, 240
characteristics of, 192, 194
computer station, 203–217
conveyor, 247–249
corridors, 234–237
cutouts, 240
floor, 237–241
laboratory, 217–227
layout/dimensions in, 191–217
and posture, 451
ramp, 240–242
and redesign, 519–520
seated workplace case study of, 635–637
selection of type of, 192–194
sitting, 194–198
stairs/ladder, 242–247
standing, 197–203
standing workplace case study of, 635–637
types of, 192
for visual work, 228–234

Workplace Standards Tasmania, 87
Work/recovery cycles, 166–168, 460, 461
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

Management standard (ASC), 82
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders

(WRMSDs) see also Musculoskeletal

in construction, 485–487
early reporting of, 457

and job demands evaluation, 180
in manual handling tasks, 511, 512
and Moore-Garg Strain Index, 179–181
OSHA checklists for, 124
and repetitive work, 449–454

Work-rest cycles, 679
Work-rest ratio, 679
WorkSafe Western Australia, 86
Workspace, 679
Workstation design:

adjustable, see Adjustable workstations
computer, see Computer workstations
contributory factors in, 148
microscope, 224–227

Work stress scales, 118, 119
Work surfaces:

computer, 206–213
height of, 272
hot, 611–612
low reflectance of, 570
and posture/height, 104–106
and reach area, 201
for repetitive work, 456
seated, 198
slanted, 232
standing, 202

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 76
Wraps, tool handle, 349

angle of, 53, 111–112, 344–346
anthropometric data for, 49, 51, 53
assessment of fatigue in, 140–141
center of gravity for, 57
and gripping tasks, 111–112
grip strengths and postures of, 67, 528
and handle/handhold design, 525–526
job risk factors for, 450–455
joint motion range for, 58
and keyboard angle, 319–321
maximum torque values for, 69
range of motion for, 59
repetitive work design for, 456
and tool design, 344–346

Writing tasks, 212
Written instructions, 392–395
WRMSDs, see Work-related musculoskeletal

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), 76

Yaw, keyboard, 321, 322

Zero, position of on numeric keypads, 320,

704 Index

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