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TitleInternational Review of the Red Cross, November-December 1994, Thirty-fourth year
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            COVER PAGE
INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS
CONTENTS
1869-1994: THE 125TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS
	The 125th anniversary of the International Review of the Red Cross, by Mr. Cornelio Sommaruga, President of the ICRC
PRINCIPLES AND LAW
	Jean-Georges Lossier: Anniversary message
	Jean Pictet: The formation of international humanitarian law
CONTRIBUTIONS TO HISTORY
	Jacques Meurant: The 125th anniversary of the International Review of the Red Cross - A faithful record - I. Protection and assistance
	André Durand: The role of Gustave Moynier in the founding the Institute of International Law (1873) - The War in the Balkans (1857-1878); The Manual of the Laws of War (1880)
	Florianne Truninger †: The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Indochina War - From the Japanese defeat to the Geneva Agreements (1945-1954)
PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE
	Jacques Moreillon: The promotion of peace and humanity in the twenty-first century - What role for the Red Cross and the Red Crescent?
INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS
	ICRC appoints a new member
CONTENTS (1994)
ADDRESSES OF NATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1994 THIRTY·FOURTH YEAR No. 303

INTERNATIONAL



OF THE RED CROSS


JAG SCHOOL

APR 0 4 1995

LIBRARY

+c
Published every two months by the


International Comminee of the Red Cross

for the International Red Cross

and Red Crescent Movement

Page 2

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS


Mr. CORNELIO SOMMARUGA, Doctor of Laws of the University of Zurich, Doctor h.c. reI'. pol. of
Fribourg University (Switzerland), Doctor h.c. in International Relations of Minho University,
Braga (PortUgal), Doctor h.c. of Medicine of Bologna University (Italy), Doctor h.c. of Nlce­
Sophia Antipolis University, Doctor h.c. of Seoul National University (Republic of Korea),
President (member since 1986)

Mr. PIERRE KELLER, Doctor of Philosophy in International Relations (Yale), banker, Vice-
President (1984)

Mr. CLAUDIO CARATSCH, Bachelor of Arts, Vice-President (1990)
Mr. ULRICH GAUDENZ M1DDENDORP, Doctor of Medicine, lecturer at the Faculty of Medicine of

Zurich University, former head of the surgical department of the Cantonal Hospital, Winterthur (1973)
Mr. MAURICE AUBERT, Doctor of Laws, Barrister, Vice-President from 1984 to 1991 (1979)
Mr. DIETRICH SCHINDLER, Doctor of Laws, Honorary Professor at the University of Zurich (1961­

1973) (1980)
Mrs. RENEE GUISAN, General Secretary of the international Jnstilut de la Vie, head of medico-social

institutions in the Canton of Vaud, member of the International Association for Volunteer Effort
(1986)

Mrs. ANNE PETITPIERRE, Doctor of Laws, Barrister, Professor at the Law Faculty of the University
of Geneva (1987)

Mr. PAOLO BERNASCONI, Barrister, LL. L., lecturer in economic criminal law at the
Universities of St. Gallen and Zurich, former Public Prosecutor at Lugano, member of the
Swiss Pro ]uventute Foundation (1987)

Mrs. LISELOTrE KRAUS-GURNY, Doctor of Laws of the University of Zurich (1988)
Mrs. SUSY BRUSCHWEILER, nurse, Director of the Swiss Red Cross College of Nursing in Aarau

(1988)
Mr. JACQUES FORSTER, Doctor of Economics, Professor at the Graduate Institute of Development

Studies in Geneva (1988)
Mr. JACQUES MOREILLON, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Political Science, Secretary General of

the World Organization of the Scout Movement, former Director General at the ICRC (1988)
Mr. MAX DAETWYLER, graduate in Economics and Social Sciences of the University of Geneva,

Scholar in Residence of the International Management Institute (IMI) of Geneva (1989)
Mr. RODOLPHE DE HALLER, M. D., lecturer at the Faculty of Medicine of the Univer­

sity of Geneva, President of the Swiss Association Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
(1991)

Mr. DANIEL THURER, LL. D., LL. M. (Cambridge), Professor at the University of Zurich (1991)
Mrs. FRANCESCA POMETTA, Bachelor of Arts, former Swiss Ambassador (1991)
Mr. JEAN-FRANc;OIS AUBERT, LL. D., Professor at the University of Neuchatel, former member of

the Swiss National Council and Council of States (1993)
Mr. JOSEF FELDMANN, Ph.D., tenured professor at the University of St. Gallen, Corps Commander

(Rtd.) of the Swiss army (1993)
Mrs. LILIAN UCHTENHAGEN, Doctor of Economics of the University of Basel, former member of

the Swiss National <;:ouncil (1993)
Mr. GEORGES-ANDRE CUENDET, Bachelor of Laws of the University of Geneva, graduate of the

Institute of Political Studies of the University of Paris, M.A. from Stanford University (USA),
member of the Administrative Council of Cologny, Geneva (1993)

EXECUTIVE BOARD

Mr. CORNELIO SOMMARUGA, President

Mr. CLAUDIO CARATSCH,permanent Vice-President
Mr. JACQUES FORSTER, member a/the JCRC
Mrs. ANNE PETITPIERRE, member 0/ the JCRC
Mr. PETER FUCHS, Director General
Mr. JEAN DE COURTEN, Director a/Operations
Mr. YVES SANDOZ, Director/or Principles, Law

and Relations with the Movement

Page 56

INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS

unity restored for the first time in 87 years, Bao Dai solemnly consti~
tuted the State of Vietnam in August 1949; France handed over sov­
ereign powers and many services to it on 30 December that same
year.

Through 1947 and 1948, the government of the Democratic RepUblic
of Vietnam, still hoping for the resumption of negotiations with either
France or Bao Dai with a view to the joint establishment of a national
and democratic regime, followed a reserved and cautious approach. While
it continued its guerrilla activities it was at the same time conserving its
strength. But all hope of compromise was dashed by the proclamation of
the State of Vietnam.

As of 1950, Vietnam became a focal point of EastlWest confrontation.
Aided by China, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, declaring itself to
be the sole legitimate Vietnamese state, launched a military offensive in
September in the north during which thousands of people were killed or
taken prisoner. France and the USA for their part were training and
equipping the Franco-Vietnamese army. In Vietnam, as in Korea, it was
a matter of containing Chinese expansionism and halting the spread of
Communism.

After a series of French victories at the beginning of 1951 that took
a heavy toll on the forces of General Giap, head of the Democratic
Republic of Vietnam forces, the military advantage shifted gradually as
of summer 1951 in favour of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which
again resorted to guerrilla and harassment tactics.

Heavy losses forced France in 1952 to abandon most of its positions
in Tonkin and in the Thai region as guerrilla activity intensified in central
and southern Vietnam.

In 1953 Giap's army invaded central and southern Laos and north­
eastern Cambodia.

In March 1954, Giap laid siege to Dien Bien Phu, which fell on 7 May;
French losses amounted to some 7,000 dead and 11,000 prisoners, while
the enemy dead numbered 8,000. The Geneva Conference opened on that
same day, attended by France and the three associated states (Vietnam,
Laos and Cambodia), as well as its allies the USA, Great Britain, the
USSR, the People's Republic of China and the Democratic Republic of
Vietnam. So great was the interest of the powers in an expeditious end
to the war that a compromise was reached. On behalf of France, Pierre
Mendes France signed an agreement on 20 July 1954 providing for a
cease-fire and a regrouping of Democratic Republic of Vietnam and

570

Page 57

THE JCRC AND THE INDOCHINA WAR

French Union forces on either side of the 17th parallel of latitude; this
was to serve as a provisional military demarcation line between the
northern zone, under the control of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam,
and the southern zone, which was assigned to the State of Vietnam. The
two zones were to consult with each other in 1955 with a view to holding
elections and setting up a unified government by July 1956.

ICRC ACTIVITIES

ICRC offers of service

Upon arrival in Saigon in 1945 the ICRC delegate Henri Hurlimann
placed himself at the disposal of the Anglo-American authorities, who
assigned him the task of providing food to Allied prisoners of war held
in two Japanese camps in Saigon until their repatriation one month later.2

The gradual repatriation of some 65,000 Japanese prisoners of war and
civilian internees,3 which took place without ICRC involvement, and the
setting up of various support institutions enabled the delegate to devote
himself to transmitting family messages and to delivering aid to certain
categories of civilians until the closure of the delegation in May 1946.

The conclusion ofthe Franco-Vietnamese agreement on 6 March 1946
obviated the need for a delegate in Tonkin. The ICRC then decided to
reorganize its delegations in South-East Asia by appointing Charles
Aeschlimann as delegate based in Singapore, but also covering Hong
Kong, Malaysia, Siam and Indochina. The French Government approved
his appointrrtent.4

Clashes between French forces and troops of the Democratic Republic
of Vietnam led to the taking of civilian and military prisoners on both
sides. The ICRC immediately offered its services to the French Govern-

2 Report of the JCRC on its activities during the Second World War (September 1,
1939 - June 30, 1947), Vol. I, General Activities, Geneva, ICRC, 1948, p. 507.

3 Letter of 6.2.46 from the Headquarters of the Supreme Allied Commander, South-
East Asia, to H. Hurlimann. ICRC Archives - dossier G.I7/69. Letter No.8 of 18.4.46
from the ICRC to H. Hurlimann. ICRC Archives - dossier G.17/69.

4 Letter dated 29.6.46 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the head of the ICRC
delegation in France. ICRC Archives - dossier G.17/69 II.

571

Page 111

The International Review of the Red Cross is the official publication of the
International Committee of the Red Cross. It was first published in 1869 under
the title "Bulletin international des Societes de secours aux militaires blesses",
and then "Bulletin international des Societes de la Croix-Rouge".

1he International Review of the Red Cross is a forum for reflection and
comment and serves as a reference work on the mission and guiding principles of
the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. It is also a specialized
journal in the field of international humanitarian law and other aspects of human­
itarian endeavour.

As a chronicle of the international activities of the Movement and a record of
events, the International Review of the Red Cross is a constant source of infor­
mation and maintains a link between the components of the International Red Cross
and Red Crescent Movement.

The International Review of the Red Cross is published every two months,
in four main editions:
French: REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE LA CROIX-ROUGE (since October 1869)
English: INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF THE RED CROSS (since April 1961)
Spanish: REVISTA INTERNACIONAL DE LA CRUZ ROJA (since January 1976)
Arabic: ./''11 ~ '.h.ul ~I (since May-June 1988)

Selected articles from the main editions have also been published in German
under the title Ausziige since January 1950.

EDITOR: Jacques Meurant, D. Pol. Sci.
ADDRESS: International Review of the Red Cross

19, avenue de la Paix
1202 Geneva, Switzerland

SUBSCRIPTIONS: one year, 30 Swiss francs or US$ 18
single copy, 5 Swiss francs

Postal cheque account No. 12 - 1767-1 Geneva
Bank account No. 129.986.0, Swiss Bank Corporation, Geneva

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the International
Federation ofRed Cross and Red Crescent Societies, together with the National
Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, form the International Red Cross and Red
Crescent Movement.

The ICRC, which gave rise to the Movement, is an independent humanitarian
institi.ltion. As a neutral intermediary in the event of armed conflict or unrest it
endeavours, on its own initiative or on the basis of the Geneva Conventions, to
bring protection and assistance to the victims of international and non-inter­
national armed conflict and internal disturbances and tension.

Page 112

I TERNATIONAL

REVIEW


1869-1994

I2STR ANNIVERSARY OF TKE

lNTERNATIONAL REVlEW OF THE RED CROSS

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