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                            2016_forward_ester_correctedf
2016_MSC TEMBO_FINAL CORRECTIONS
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	LIST OF REFERENCES
	Esther_appendix g
	APPENDIX H_word file
                        
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Page 1

INTENSIVE CARE NURSES KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND

PRACTICES OF ORAL CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH ORAL

ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION













Esther Tembo











A research report submitted to the

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

in partial fulfilment the requirements for the degree

of

Master of Science in Nursing











Johannesburg, 2016

Page 2

ii





DECLARATION



I, Esther Tembo, declare that this report is my own work and is being submitted to the

Nursing. This report has never been submitted or published for any other degree or

purpose before.





Signature :................................................



..................day of......................2016



Protocol no: M131109

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44


3.5.2 Sampling



Sampling is a process of selecting a group of individuals who can be used in a research

study (Lo-Biondo-Wood and Haber, 2010:221). A sampling method describes the

strategies that will be used to obtain an adequate sample size (Polit and Beck, 2010:307). A

sample is a group of individuals taken from a larger population that is selected for

inclusion in the research study (Burns and Grove, 2009:349).



Following discussion with a statistician, a sample size of 81 (n=81) was decided upon to

ensure good representation of the population from which the sample was drawn. This

discussion was based on the preliminary record review undertaken by the researcher in

June 2013.



For the purpose of this study, a non-probability, purposive sampling method was chosen in

collecting data. In non-probability sampling, elements are chosen by non-random methods,

whereas in purposive sampling the researcher conscientiously selects certain participants,

elements, events or incidents to include in the study (Burns and Grove, 2009:349). In this

way the researcher selects the participants based on who they think is appropriate for the

study and who are well informed about a certain topic (Polit and Beck, 2010:312).



The inclusion criteria for prospective nurse participants included:

Registered by the South African Nursing Council (SANC) with an additional

qualification in ICU nursing.

Registered by the South African Nursing Council (SANC) as a professional nurse

including permanent and agency nurses working in the selected public sector

institution.

More than six months clinical experience in the selected ICU unit.



The exclusion criterion included enrolled nurses and auxiliary nurses, as their sub-

professional category of nursing staff are not expected to have the skills and in-depth

knowledge about oral care for intubated patients.

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45


3.5.3 Data Collection Instrument



Data collection is the precise, systematic gathering of information relevant to the research

purpose or specific objectives or questions of a study (Burns and Grove, 2009:42). Data

collection can be done by means of instruments or questionnaires developed or modified

for recording information such as: demographic data, information from patient records,

observations or values from physiological measures (Burns and Grove, 2009:695).



In this study, a survey questionnaire developed by Lin et al. (2011) and identified in

literature was used to achieve the study objectives (refer Appendix A). Permission was

obtained from the developer to use the instrument (refer Appendix B). The questionnaire

was reviewed by a small group of local domain medical and nursing experts (n=3) in

clinical practice before commencement of the study. It was found to be appropriate and

suitable for the South Africa context.



The self-administered questionnaire contained five sections. The first section comprised

the demographic variables (5 items) for the participants, whilst the second section asked

sources of learning about oral care for intubated patients (6

items). The third section consisted of six multiple-choice questions with a total of 29

items regarding knowledge of oral care for intubated patients (Lin et al. 2011:3206).

Participants were asked to select the correct responses for knowledge of the

characteristics of oral care . The total score ranged from 0 to 29, with one mark awarded

for each correct response (Lin et al. 2011:3206).



The fourth section of the questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first part

treatment activities of nursing care , respectively. Participants were asked to rank

physical activities (7 items) and treatment activities (8 items) in order of priority. The

second part of section four consisted of two questions concerning the importance of basic

nursing care activities . The total score ranged from 2

to 20, the higher the score the more positive the nurses attitude was perceived (Lin et al.

2011:3206).

Page 110

U N IVE RS ITY OF THE
WITWATE RSRAN D

]OHANNESBURG

Miss E Tembo
Ntchisi District Hospital
POBox44
Ntchisi
Malawi

Reference: Ms Thokozile Nhlapo
E-mail: [email protected]]sits=aeza

APPENDIX G

Private Bag 3 Wits, 2050
Fax: 027117172119

f elt 027117172076

09 January 2015
Person No: 560195

PAG

t-F.lv

Dear Miss Tembo

Master of Science in Nursing: Approval ofTitle

We have pleasure in advising that your proposal entitled /r,fersive care nurces' knowledge, attitudes and
prcctices of oral care for patients with oral endotrccheal intubation has been approved. Please note that
any amendments to this title have to be endorsed by the Faculty's higher degrees committee and
formally approved.

Yours sincerely

k-rc-2.^*-

Mrs Sandra Benn
Faculty Registrar
Faculty of Health Sciences

99

Page 111

100


APPENDIX H

Gill Smithies

Proofreading & Language Editing Services

59, Lewis Drive, Amanzimtoti, 4126, Kwazulu Natal

Cell: 071 352 5410 E-mail: [email protected]



Work Certificate



To Dr Shelley Schmollgruber

Address Wits Dept of Nursing Education

Date 10/9/2014

Subject Thesis: Forward and Chapters 1 – 5

INTENSIVE CARE NURSES’ KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES

OF ORAL CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH ORAL ENDOTRACHEAL

INTUBATION, by Esther Tembo.



Ref SS/GS/03



I, Gill Smithies, certify that I have proofed and language edited:


Thesis: Forward and Chapters 1 – 5 by Esther Tembo,

INTENSIVE CARE NURSES’ KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF

ORAL CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH ORAL ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION

to the standard as required by Wits Dept. of Nursing Education.



Gill Smithies

10/9/2014

RE-EDITED 2/2/2016

mailto:[email protected]

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