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TitleIntelligent Textiles for Personal Protection and Safety
File Size2.6 MB
Total Pages160
Table of Contents
                            Title page
Advanced Research Workshop on Intelligent Textiles for Personal Protection and Safety
Intelligent Textiles for Personal Protection and Safety: The Emerging Discipline
The Wearable Motherboard: The New Class of Adaptive and Responsive Textile Structures
New Textile Materials for Environmental Protection
Wearable Mechanosensing and Emerging Technologies in Fabric-Based Actuation
Flexible Displays on Textiles for Personal Protection
Conductivity Based Sensors for Protection and Healthcare
Optical Chemical Sensors and Personal Protection
Ergonomics of Protective Clothing; Heat Strain and Fit
Author Index
Document Text Contents
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NATO Security through Science Series

This Series presents the results of scientific meetings supported under the NATO Programme for

Security through Science (STS).

Meetings supported by the NATO STS Programme are in security-related priority areas of

Defence Against Terrorism or Countering Other Threats to Security. The types of meeting

supported are generally �Advanced Study Institutes� and �Advanced Research Workshops�. The

NATO STS Series collects together the results of these meetings. The meetings are co-organized

by scientists from NATO countries and scientists from NATO�s �Partner� or �Mediterranean

Dialogue� countries. The observations and recommendations made at the meetings, as well as

the contents of the volumes in the Series, reflect those of participants and contributors only; they

should not necessarily be regarded as reflecting NATO views or policy.

Advanced Study Institutes (ASI) are high-level tutorial courses to convey the latest

developments in a subject to an advanced-level audience

Advanced Research Workshops (ARW) are expert meetings where an intense but informal

exchange of views at the frontiers of a subject aims at identifying directions for future action

Following a transformation of the programme in 2004 the Series has been re-named and re-

organised. Recent volumes on topics not related to security, which result from meetings

supported under the programme earlier, may be found in the NATO Science Series.

The Series is published by IOS Press, Amsterdam, and Springer Science and Business Media,

Dordrecht, in conjunction with the NATO Public Diplomacy Division.


A. Chemistry and Biology Springer Science and Business Media

B. Physics and Biophysics Springer Science and Business Media

C. Environmental Security Springer Science and Business Media

D. Information and Communication Security IOS Press

E. Human and Societal Dynamics IOS Press

Sub-Series D: Information and Communication Security � Vol. 3 ISSN: 1574-5589

Page 80

escape visual detection. The development of camouflage materials has led to the

manufacture of clothing with the same purpose as the use of natural materials, causing

the wearer to blend into the natural background with emphasis on vegetation and terrain.

For purposes of this invention, camouflage material is divided into two distinct

categories: two-dimensional material which is generally flat in profile having a length

dimension and a width dimension, but a negligible thickness dimension, and three-

dimensional material having length, width, and a significant thickness dimension. Two-

dimensional materials may be made from woven, knit or other fabric constructions as

will be well known to those of skill in the art as well as from non-fabric constructions.

Although the two-dimensional material may be a solid camouflage color, most

frequently the material is dyed or colored in a multi-colored pattern to simulate the

pattern and coloration of the terrain and vegetation in which the camouflaged item is to

be used.

In addition to the benefits of coloration and pattern provided by two-dimensional

material, three-dimensional materials provide the additional feature of disrupting the

outline or silhouette of an object when viewed from a reasonable distance. Such

material not only looks like the native vegetation, but the three-dimensional aspect of

the material allows it to move like native vegetation and to disrupt the normal

silhouette of the wearer. It is known to create a three-dimensional fabric by utilizing a

two layered structure and cutting the exposed outer layer in flaps, loops and similar

shapes that simulate the shapes and sizes of natural vegetation, such as leaves, twigs,

branches, and open spaces. As will be appreciated, cut pieces create the third, thickness

dimension of the three-dimensional camouflage material.

2.2. Digital patterns camouflage fabrics

Recently the new Canadian Camouflage pattern CADPAT (Figure 2.) and the U.S.

Marines pattern MARPAT (Figure 3.) based on the Canadian developed pattern, have

garnered allot of attention as the pattern is made up of a digitized image using four

colors. This digital effect generates a dithering effect between colors (no solid lines)

and works well within 100 yards of an adversary. However, this advance in camouflage

is minimal as the colors tend to blend into each at farther distances, if this blended color

of the uniform is different than the background the human shape is revealed at these

distances. While CADPAT and MARPAT may be the current top patterns under field

tests they still have limitations which can be overcome.

V. Koncar and F. Boussu / Flexible Displays on Textiles for Personal Protection72

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Figure 2. Canadian Camouflage Pattern

Figure 3. U.S. Marines pattern

What is missing in the new generation digital camouflage is a pattern that works

both close and distant, usually there is a tradeoff when choosing a spatial frequency

(size of the blotches).

Why would an army want to change from Olive Drab (OD) or flat colors, they test

well in camouflage research?

As good as the flat colors are (OD, Gray or Khaki), they do essentially lack the

disruptive element which is crucial when there is available cover, and where ranges of

engagement exceed those of built up populated areas.

Canadian CADPAT is 30% more effective than Olive Drab in field testing. The

CADPAT soldiers could get 30% closer than the minimum ID range for a user wearing


What about all the hunting camouflages that use many colors to look almost photo


Camouflages used in most militaries range from 4-6 colors this is due to cost

increases with printing additional colors. When making a few 100,000 uniforms each

additional color adds huge costs with current printing techniques.

Testing by the US Marines on hunting camouflage showed that it worked well in

specific regions of similar background but only within those areas, military camouflage

was better suited for wider regional applications.

V. Koncar and F. Boussu / Flexible Displays on Textiles for Personal Protection 73

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