Download Industry Handbook for Safe Processing of Nuts 1st Edition 22Feb10 PDF

TitleIndustry Handbook for Safe Processing of Nuts 1st Edition 22Feb10
TagsHazard Analysis And Critical Control Points Verification And Validation Environmental Monitoring Foods Food Safety
File Size1.6 MB
Total Pages155
Document Text Contents
Page 1



Industry Handbook for
Safe Processing of Nuts

Page 2

Nut Safety Handbook

GMA Nut Safety Task Force



The Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) gratefully acknowledges the contributions of
GMA member and non-member companies that have shared materials and provided
direction to the Industry Handbook for Safe Processing of Nuts, first edition. The GMA Nut
Safety Task Force in developing this Handbook has taken into consideration comments from
FDA CFSAN food safety experts, whose reviews and suggestions for improving the
Handbook are greatly appreciated.

© 2010 by the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA). No part of this publication may be
printed or reproduced without the written consent of GMA.

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Nut Safety Handbook

GMA Nut Safety Task Force 77

Labels and pre-labeled packaging should not be co-mingled inside shipping and storage

Another technique to consider is accounting for quantities of labels used versus quantity of
packages produced during a production run. Units produced should approximately equal
labels used. If these two numbers are different, it could indicate that the wrong label was
used or there are unlabeled packages in the production run.

Food processors should educate line personnel on techniques for ensuring that product
labels are switched appropriately at product changeover. Systems for confirming correct
product and label changeover may be warranted.

The use of colored striping on the edges of packages that are stacked flat in packaging
machines should be considered. That practice is especially valuable for allergen-containing
products because it would reduce the chances for error by line operators.

3.7.4 Allergen Training

The successful control of allergens depends on employees and managers doing the right
thing at the right time. Their proper action is based on their understanding of what their
responsibilities are, but also why they have those responsibilities. Understanding allergens
and the facility’s allergen control procedures is aided by a strong allergen training program.

a. All employees of a facility should receive General Allergen Awareness training when
new to the facility and at least annually.

b. Employees with specific allergen-related job activities should receive specific training
on those responsibilities. This job-specific training should occur when the employee
is new to those responsibilities and as often as necessary, but at least annually.
Some examples of specific topics for training are:

i. HACCP Verification Duties
ii. Sanitation Cleaning Procedures for Allergen Changeovers
iii. Production Procedures for Allergen Changeovers
iv. Label Controls
v. Allergen Cleaning Validation/Testing Procedures
vi. Allergen Ingredient Spill Procedures
vii. Allergenic Ingredient Receiving Procedures
viii. Allergen Tool Cleaning and Handling Procedures
ix. Allergen Changeover Matrix
x. Rework Controls

3.8 Pest Control

A documented pest management program should be in place to effectively monitor and
control pest activity in the facility and the surrounding area. To reduce the risk of product
contamination for pest control practices, pest control activities should be performed by
certified pest control contractors or facility personnel with equivalent training. If a contracted
service is used, the facility may need to keep a copy of the valid contract and a copy of the
license, given by the relevant local authority and including insurance coverage.

Pest management practices (i.e., strategies of exclusion and trapping of pests) or alternative
methods and tools for controlling pests are preferred over pesticide use and should be
employed wherever feasible and practical.

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Nut Safety Handbook

GMA Nut Safety Task Force 78

Exclusion should be the first line of defense and primary method of controlling pests. Some
external building practices that aid in keeping pests out of the building include:

• Eliminating all possible entrances into the facility.
- All doors, windows, and screens should fit tightly. Note that a mouse can

enter through ¼" (1 cm) openings.
- Doors should be kept closed.

• Pipe openings through facility walls should be sealed.
• Exterior product transport pipes should be capped when not in use.
• High grass and weeds around the facility or in adjacent areas should be eliminated

where possible, since these provide excellent hiding areas for rodents.
• Maintain a vertical border free of vegetation (e.g., 3-ft wide/3-ft vertical border from

the ground to above the roof around the building perimeter including tree limbs and

• Scrap, pallets, pipes, drums, etc., should not be accumulated on the grounds or
parking lot.

• Metal refuse containers should have tight-fitting covers and be stored on racks.
• All rat holes and burrows should be closed.
• All ingredients, equipment, and supplies received should be inspected upon receipt

for rodent excreta or any signs of gnawing and chewing on the containers, since mice
often enter the facility on supply loads.

• All openings on wall and roof penetrations should be screened to prevent insect or
rodent ingress.

One rodent trap technique is to set rodent traps in three perimeters of control (lot line,
exterior of the building, and interior of the building). Rodent traps are recommended on
interior ground level floors and basement levels of facilities. A complete and accurate map
should be maintained showing the location of indoor rodent traps, glue boards, insect light
traps, outdoor bait stations, pheromone traps, etc.

The overall cleanliness of the facility, proper sanitation, housekeeping, and storage practices
help control pests by removing food and harborage.

Chemicals used for pest control should be accurately labeled and inventoried. When
chemicals are not in use, they should be securely stored (by locked door/gate) with access
granted to authorized and designated personnel only. Insecticides should be applied
according to label. Baits should be used in situations where a specific pest is the target.
Where used, bait stations should be of solid construction, tamper-resistant, and secure.

Many variables should be considered when determining which pest control chemical to use.
In general, rodenticides should be used in block form only (rodenticidal granulates, pellets,
or powders should not be used) to reduce the risk of product contamination. Rodenticides
should normally be focused on the outside of the facility. Traps rather than bait stations are
preferred for use inside of a building.

Light bulbs from insect light traps should be replaced regularly (as per manufacturer
specification) for the maximum efficiency of these type of traps. The insect light traps should
be installed in the receiving or warehouse areas close to entrances, but should be located so
as not to attract insects into the building. Light bulbs should be shatter-resistant.

Routine inspections should be conducted at a frequency necessary to identify pest activity,
harborages, and entry points. Pest activity inspection results should be recorded along with
the application of pesticides. Documentation of pesticide use should include: the brand
name of the pesticide, traceability information (e.g., lot numbers), quantity applied, the
method used to apply the pesticide, targeted pest, and time of treatment. All pesticide labels
and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), or equivalent material, addressing safety
precautions should be available at the facility. Pest activity data should be analyzed to show
trends in activity and, if pest activity is noted, controls should be increased appropriately.

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Nut Safety Handbook

GMA Nut Safety Task Force 154

Foodborne disease update: Salmonella in processed foods. IAFP annual meeting, August
3-6. Columbus, Ohio.

Industry Handbook for Safe Processing of Nuts


Visit to download the following addenda or click on
the individual links below:

Addendum I: Industry Handbook for the Safe Shelling of Peanuts

Addendum II: Good Agricultural Practices for California Pistachio Growers

Addendum III: Good Agricultural Practices for Almond Growers

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