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TitleHIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination Toward Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Enugu, Nigeria
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                            Walden University
HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination Toward Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Enugu, Nigeria
	Chinyere Fidelia Nnajiofor
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Page 1

Walden University

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies
Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies



HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination
Toward Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Enugu,
Chinyere Fidelia Nnajiofor
Walden University

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regarding the objectives of the study. Interview questions that were repetitive were

removed. The comments were used to improve the interview questions.

Ethical Procedures

Ethical issues typically arise when research involves human participants

(Creswell, 2009). Butin (2010) cautioned against covert research and stated that

observation methods and interview responses should be overt. Denscombe (2007)

supported full disclosure of the purpose of interviews and surveys to the participants in

qualitative studies. I ensured that ethical procedures were applied in the current study.

Before conducting the research, I had to obtain approval from Walden

As mentioned earlier, each participant had to read and sign the

informed consent, which contained detailed information about the purpose of the

research, assurances of confidentiality, and the data collection procedures. I assured the

participants that this study would follow ethical principles and guidelines as well as

maintain their privacy and the confidentiality of their data.


Included in this chapter was a discussion of the research design; mention of the

RQs and hypotheses; and explanations of the population and sampling, the data

collection, and the data analysis. I determined that a mixed methods research design was

the most appropriate design using an interview and a survey to address the RQs. A case

study approach was best suited to this research. The next chapter presents the results of

the study.

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Chapter 4: Results


As stated earlier, despite various local and international funding from the

Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief(PEPFAR); Global Fund(GB); World

Bank(WB); the United Kingdom Department for International Development(DFID);

United Nation(UN);the domestic private sector, and the domestic public financing geared

toward prevention, control, and care programs for PLWHA in Nigeria, HIV/AIDS

remains the leading cause of death and disease among women of productive age (i.e., 15-

49 years) in Nigeria (UNAIDS, 2013). The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women ages

15 to 24 years is estimated to be 3 times higher than that among men of the same age

group and the same demographic details such as location (U.S. Embassy in Nigeria &

NARHS, 2013). The U.S. Embassy in Nigeria & NARHS Fact Sheet(2013) reported that

each year, 55% of AIDS deaths are recorded in Nigeria among women and girls. Women

constitute 58%, or approximately 1.72 million, of the 3.1 million PLWHA in Nigeria,

ranking the country second only to South Africa in the number of PLWHA (WHO,

2009). This study focused on WLWHA in from the Igbo population in Enugu State, who

generally are viewed as child breeders and homemakers who should be seen, not heard.

The inequality and marginalization of this vulnerable population of women and

girls have contributed to the increased rate of transmission of HIV/AIDS in Enugu State

(Ezejiofor & Campus 2012). A recent study by UNAIDS (2012) ranked Enugu State

second to Benue State in Nigeria in its HIV/AIDS rates. However, despite different views

on the effectiveness and limitations of care programs meant to reduce HIV/AIDS-related

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living with HIV/AIDS?

40 Do you know any organizations or groups

you can go to if you experience stigma and


If yes, Which kinds of organizations or groups do

you know about?

41 Do you feel you have the power to

influence decisions in local government

and national policies affecting women

living with HIV/AIDS?

42 Some people close to me are afraid others

will reject them if it becomes known that I

have HIV.

43 How has Enugu society cultural practices

contribute to your experiences as a women

living with HIV/AIDS.

44 How has society norms contribute to your

experiences as a women living with


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Appendix C : HIV Stigma Scale Permission of Use Document.

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