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TitleHerod King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans 2017 Routledge
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Series page
Title page
Copyright
Dedication
Table of contents
List of tables
List of maps
List of figures
Preface and acknowledgments
Image credits
List of abbreviations
Introduction
Part I: Herod’s life
	1 In the end is the beginning
	2 From Idumea to Petra (to 64 BCE)
	3 From Petra to Rome (64–40 BCE)
	4 From Rome to Rhodes (40–30 BCE)
	5 From Rhodes to Rome (30–17 BCE)
	6 From Rome to Jericho (17–4 BCE)
Part II: Herod in context
	7 Late Hellenism in the Levant
	8 The kingdom
	9 Herod’s architecture and archaeological remains
	10 Herod’s finances: inscriptions, coins, and economy
	11 Religious and military elites
	12 Family matters
	13 The Herods in Roman perspective
Index of references to ancient texts
Index of modern authors
Index of places
Subject index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Herod

Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans examines the life, work,
and influence of this controversial figure, who remains the most highly visi-
ble of the Roman client kings under Augustus. Herod’s rule shaped the world
in which Christianity arose and his influence can still be seen today. In this
expanded second edition, additions to the original text include discussion of
the archaeological evidence of Herod’s activity, his building program, numis-
matic evidence, and consideration of the roles and activities of other client
kings in relation to Herod. This volume includes new maps and numerous
photographs, and these coupled with the new additions to the text make this
a valuable tool for those interested in the wider Roman world of the late
first century bce at both under- and postgraduate levels. Herod remains the
definitive study of the life and activities of the king known traditionally as
Herod the Great.

Peter Richardson is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Religion at the
University of Toronto, Canada.

Amy Marie Fisher works at the University of Alberta, Canada, where she is
also an adjunct instructor in the study of religion.

Page 244

Late Hellenism in the Levant 213

hand, Herod—and Judea—managed this situation relatively calmly, though
with some important occasions of hostility; more importantly, its ever-
widening borders encouraged Judea to assume an increasingly significant
role in the region. It is true that, from the other side, the extent to which
this situation was viewed as threatening depended on the degree to which
one was Hellenized and the degree to which one appreciated how Herod
and his courtiers were moving along the road to accommodation with the
Hellenistic and Roman worlds. The result was that the specter of Hellenism
was a religious flashpoint within some circles during Herod’s reign, a situ-
ation that contributed to the emergence of religious groups opposed to the
Hellenizing trend (Chapter 12).

References

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Routledge, 1990.

Chaim Ben David. “The Jewish Settlements in the Districts of Scythopolis, Hippos
and Gadara.” Aram 23 (2011): 309–23.

Hans Bietenhard. “Die syrische Dekapolis von Pomepeius bis Traian.” ANRW 29
(1970): 220–1.

Lincoln Blumell, Jenn Cianca, Peter Richardson, & William Tabbernee. “The
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Martin Hengel. Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in Their Encounter in Palestine during
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Page 488

Subject index 457

65, 66, 74, 107, 204, 220; Iturea 74;
Jerusalem under Antiochus IV 220;
and Marissa 66; in Samaria 251;
tendency to empire 200

Silo (Roman general) 119, 120,
122, 138n1

Simon of Cathla (Idumean leader) 66–7
Simon (son of Boethos, high priest)

160, 190, 293, 304, 364
Soëmus (Iturean leader) 131, 136–7,

140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145
Sossius, Gaius (governor of Syria) 24t,

123, 124, 125, 126, 127
stadia 3, 148f, 167, 237t, 238t, 243f,

254, 266f, 267f, 270
Star of Bethlehem 391
Syllaeus (Nabatean administrator)

156–7, 171, 176, 177–8, 180–1,
182, 186, 189, 191, 369, 371

synagogues: Gaulanitis 227; Hebron
248f; Jewish Diaspora 155, 169,
170–2, 173, 175, 205, 209, 210, 225,
298; offering guest accommodation
302–3; Qana 217f, 218; Rome 2,
170–2, 225, 298; Samaritan 209,
224–5

Syrian option 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 365

taxation 7, 10, 52, 161, 173, 174, 320,
321–3, 407–8

temple of Jerusalem: and Crassus’s
Parthian campaign 94; during the
civil war with Antigonus 113, 124–5;
”eagle affair" 39, 40–1, 316, 338,
344; Herod’s reconstruction 2, 26t
29–30, 68–9, 162–3, 167, 238–9t,
247, 276–8, 286, 335–40, 346, 347;
inscriptions 301–2, 321f; masonry
332; Pompey’s siege of Jerusalem
89–90; statue of Gaius 399–400;
uprisings following Herod’s death 48,
54; visitors to 301, 324, 337

Temples: of Apollo (Rhodes) 3, 175,
237t, 240t, 266f, 283, 294, 297, 313,
321f, 350; Ba‘al Shamim 41, 72, 73,
209, 237f, 257f, 291, 294–5; of Bel
(Palmyra) 204; cult of Tiberius 270;
inscriptions 291, 294–5, 306; Julius
Caesar 95; of Jupiter (Damascus)
205; Nabatean architecture 71–2;
Palmyra 204; of Solomon 41;
Vespasian’s Temple of Peace 19, 405,
407; Zeus 77; see also Augustea/
Sebasteia

temple tax 52, 173, 407–8
theatres: Augustus’s Judean tour 167;

Bostra 202f; Caesarea Maritima 3,
238t, 251, 267f, 270–1; Damascus
175, 205, 239t, 282; Gadara and
Gerasa 208; Herodium 238t, 262,
264, 278, 281; Jericho 241t, 243f;
Jerusalem 3, 146–7, 237t, 249, 251;
Sebaste 3, 148f; Sidon 175, 240t;
Tiberias 394; Tripolis 282

Theodotus inscription 302–3
‘throne claimant’ parable 392
Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar

Augustus: and Antipas 394–5, 397;
Archelais 393; as Augustus’s stepson
361; birth 23t; consulship 183,
190; death 397, 398; marriage 198,
362; military campaigns 166, 183;
parallels with Antipater 187, 191;
and Pontius Pilate 270, 396, 397;
retirement to Rhodes 28t, 51, 391;
Tiberias 218

Tiberius Julius Alexander (governor of
Egypt) 398, 404, 406

Tigranes I (king of Armenia) 87, 88,
107–8, 202

Tigranes (prince of Armenia) 87, 91, 92
Titius, Marcus 27t, 185
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus

Augustus 19, 403, 404, 405–6
Tobiad family 212f, 231
Tomb of Abba (Antigonus’s tomb)

303, 305
Torah (law) 2, 39, 52, 54, 55, 63, 100,

146, 340, 343, 391, 395
tourism see pilgrims
trade: coinage 314, 318, 319; Herod’s

projects 10, 148, 182, 211, 322, 323,
324, 353; routes 64, 71, 156, 204,
207, 210, 219, 228, 229, 389

triclinia 246, 247, 255, 256f, 262, 271,
274, 275

trophies incident 146–7, 148

Varro, M. Terrentius (governor of
Syria) 76, 158

Varus Publius Quinctilius (governor of
Syria) 46, 47, 48, 51–2, 54, 190, 191,
193n2, 349, 392

Ventidius Bassus, Publius (protégé of
Caesar) 109, 116, 119–20, 122, 123

Vespasian, Titus Flavius Caesar
Vesapsianus Augustus 19, 209, 218f,
403, 404–5

Page 489

458 Subject index

Vitellius, Aulus Vitellius Germanicus
Augustus 404

Vitellius, Lucius (governor of Syria)
395, 397

Volumnius (procurator/legate of Syria)
171, 180, 181, 186, 187, 298, 351

water projects 4, 7, 167, 221f, 241t,
242t, 260

wills (of Augustus) 361–2
wills (of Herod) 361–6, 362, 365–6;

first (17BCE) 27t, 362, 390; second
(13 BCE) 27t, 178, 179, 363, 390;
third (12 BCE) 28t, 182, 363, 390;
fourth (5/4 BCE) 28t, 189, 363–4;
fifth (6 BCE) 28t, 364; sixth
(5/4 BCE) 29t, 190, 192, 364;
seventh (4 BCE) 29t, 42, 77, 155,

364–5, 367–8, 393; bequests to
Augustus and Livia 298, 364, 367,
393; bequests to Salome 29t, 364,
367, 374, 393; ratification following
Herod’s death 43, 46–53, 361, 365,
374, 391; right to name his own heirs
157, 180, 362, 363, 365, 390

wills (of Julius Ceasar) 361

year of the four emperors 404

Zamaris (Babylonian Jewish leader)
181, 341, 351

Zealots 46, 53, 79, 340
Zenodorus (Iturean tetrarch and

high priest) 76, 158, 159, 163,
209, 341

Zenon Papyri 231

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