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TitleHard Bop: Jazz and Black Music 1955-1965
File Size10.1 MB
Total Pages223
Table of Contents
1. Bebop
2. Hard Bop Begins
3. A New Mainstream
4. The Scene
5. The Lyricists
6. Tenors and Organs
7. The Power of Badness
8. Hard Bop Heterodoxy: Monk, Mingus, Miles, and Trane
9. Changes
10. The Last of Hard Bop
Selected Hard Bop Discography
Document Text Contents
Page 111

96 H A a D B o p

the middle and late 1950s, though this didn't keep him from
recording for at least a dozen other labels during the same
period. His exquisite sensitivity, and the refinement of his
musical thinking, placed him high on everyone's list of favor-
ite pianists.

This refinement can be heard in Jones's solos on tunes like
"Autumn Leaves" (from Cannonball Adderley's Somethin'
Else, Blue Note) and "One for My Baby" (from Wes Montgom-
ery's So Much Guitar, Riverside). Here—and on scores of other
LPs—Jones achieves one of the most deeply relaxed grooves in
jazz history. He provides a model of alert yet unintrusive
accompaniment, while his solos combine ascending and de-
scending runs of carefully modulated dynamics, deft funky
touches, and a flexible rhythmic sense that constantly pushes
and pulls at the beat. Jones also recorded under his own name
in the late 1950s, perhaps most successfully on a solo album
for Savoy and on another LP entitled simply The Trio (with
bassist Wendell Marshall and Kenny Clarke) for the same
label. This latter disc is one of jazz's secret after-hours classics.
Marshall's velvety bass and Clarke's perfect wrist control on
brushes lay down a cushion of sound as they mesh with Jones's
dancing, skipping lines on medium tempos and his lushly
strummed chords and bell-like octaves on ballads.

For a while, Jones's very discretion and "good taste," along
with his fifteen years buried in the CBS staff orchestra, seemed
to condemn him to an obscurity similar to but worse than
Wynton Kelly's, since Kelly at least performed regularly in jazz
clubs. During the last fifteen years, however, he has been
rediscovered by a new generation of listeners (in 1979 alone he
recorded at least six albums under his own name). Jones is
now, like Farmer and Golson, in demand around the world and
esteemed as an elder statesman of modern jazz.

One fellow Detroiter Jones influenced was Tommy Flana-
gan. The two have recorded a duet album (Our Delights on
Galaxy), and many of the same adjectives have been applied to
their playing: "gentle" and "delicate," for example. Reminisc-

Page 112

The Lyricists 97

ing to Michael Ullman about his native city's profusion of
keyboard artists, Flanagan commented: "There was a lot of
playing in Detroit—a lot of pianos. It didn't matter what part of
town. If anybody in the house played an instrument, they also
had a piano. There was always a place to have a session,
whether it was my house or not. We used to play with Kenny
[Burrell], or at Barry Harris's."17 Like Jones, Flanagan admires
Nat Cole and Teddy Wilson,- he has referred to Jones as "a more
modem Wilson."16 Also like Jones, he has worked as Ella
Fitzgerald's accompanist, first from 1963 to 1965 and again for
a ten-year stint that began in 1968.

It was Flanagan's move to New York City in 1956 (along
with guitarist Burrell, who has called him his "running
buddy . . . we're the same age. We started out together—had
our first gig together"19) that signaled the beginning of his
recording career. Over the next few years, he appeared as a
sideman on dates led by Burrell, John Coltrane (Giant Steps,
one of Trane's most intriguing discs, an experiment with ultra-
dense, thick and fast chord changes), Miles Davis, Coleman
Hawkins, J.J. Johnson, and Sonny Rollins. During a European
tour with Johnson in 1957, Flanagan cut his first album as a
leader: The Tommy Flanagan Trio Overseas, with bassist
Wilbur Little and Elvin Jones.

The record contains at least one example of Flanagan's silky,
caressing approach to ballads: "Chelsea Bridge," the beginning
of a long love affair on wax with Billy Strayhorn tunes. But in
general it is a rocking, kicking session booted along by Jones's
busily interweaving, loose-jointed brushwork. Flanagan has
always played longer, twistier melodic lines than Hank Jones,
and his prickly, vigorous attack is more percussive. Though
not every cut is a blues, the whole side has a bluesy feel and
includes two walking, medium-tempo blues: "Skal Brothers"
and "Little Rock." "Skal Brothers" relies on a call-and-
response pattern for its down-home atmosphere, while "Little
Rock" creates an intimate mood of ad hoc experimentation—
of trying things out in a last set or after closing time, when so

Page 222

Index 207

Timmons, Bobby, 5, 63, 64, 128,
129, 130

To My Queen, 161
The Tokyo Blues, 158
The Tommy Flanagan Trio Over-

seas, 97-98
Toussaint, Jean, 177
"Tranquility," 56
The Trio, 96
Tristano, Lennie, 23, 59, 60
True Blue, 124, 125, 127, 128
Trusty, Sid, 169
Tucker, Mickey, 93
"Tune Up," 49
Turrentine, Stanley, 64, 104, 107-

9, 114, 116, 117
"Twisted Blues," 153
"2 Degrees East, 3 Degrees West,"

Tynan, John, 55, 56
Tyner, McCoy, 6, 116, 148, 178

Oilman, Michael, 97
"Ummh," 64
Unity, 65, 116, 159
"Up in Quincy's Room," 89
"Us," 123, 127, 12,8
Utreger, Rene, 142

Van Gelder, Rudy, 120, 161
Ventura, Charlie, 69
"Verne," 164
Vinnegar, Leroy, 123
Vinson, Eddie "Cleanhead," 49,


"Wailing Wall," 64
Waits, Freddie, 166
Waldron, Mai, 26, 43, 44, 120, 137,

139, 162, 178
"Walk on By," 54
Walker, Junior, 148
Waller, Fats, 95, 110, 132
Walton, Cedar, 118, 130, 158, 178
Ware, Wilbur, 128, 160

Warren, Quentin, 114
Washington, Dinah, 52, 54, 58,

Washington, Grover, 105
"Watermelon Man," 67
Waters, Muddy, 24, 49, 68
Watkins, Donald, 169
Watkins, Doug, 35, 37, 94, 95,

Watkins, Julius, 94
Watts, Ernie, 104, 173
Webb, Chick, 105
Webster, Ben, 10, 34, 61, 69, 102,

104, 105, 106, 155, 181
Webster, Freddie, 11, 17, 86, 87
Weinstock, Bob, 28, 64
West, Harold, 11
Weston, Randy, 43, 178
"What a Difference a Day Makes,"

"What a Little Moonlight Can Do,"

What's Going On, 104, 172
Wheatstraw, Peetie, 49
When farmer Met Gryce, 90
"When Lights Are Low," 50
"Whirl a Licks," 106
Whitfleld, Norman, 172, 173
Whitman, Walt, 78
"Wildwood," 89
Wilen, Barney, 142
Willete, Baby Face, 64
Williams, Andy, 95
Williams, Cootie, 21, 105
Williams, Martin, 150; "The

Funky-Hard Bop Regression,"

Williams, Paul, 102-3, 160
Williams, Rudy, 105
Williams, Tony, 155, 156-58
Williams, William Carlos, 74,

"Willow Weep for Me," 98
Wilson, Donald, 6
Wilson, John S., 129-30
Wilson, Nancy, 67

Page 223

208 Index

Wilson, Philip, 174
Wilson, Shadow, 11, 110
Wilson, Stanley, 6
Wilson, Teddy, 43, 54, 95, 97
Wolf, Howlin', 68
Wonder, Stevie, 172, 173
Woods, Jimmy, 131, 159, 161
"Woody'n You," 29, 99
Woolf, Frank, 64, 112, 113, 119-20,

Wozkin', 49
Workman, Reggie, 5-7, 149, 158
Woiktime, 35

World Saxophone Quartet, the,
180, 181

Wright, Leo, 139

Yancey, Jimmy, 132
"Yesterdays," 29
Young, Larry, 64, 65, 111, 116, 159
Young, Lester, 18, 37, 52, 61, 69,

78, 95, 105, 126, 160, 169
Young, Mighty Joe, 179
"You're My Thrill," 44, 117
"You're Not the Kind," 91
"Yvette," 89

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