Download Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2nd edition (Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience) PDF

TitleHandbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2nd edition (Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience)
Author
TagsCognitive Neuroscience
LanguageEnglish
File Size25.9 MB
Total Pages985
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
I  FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY
	A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
		1  The Formation of Axons and Dendrites by Developing Neurons
		2  Imaging Developmental Changes in Gray and White Matter in the Human Brain
		3  Gyrification and Development of the Human Brain
		4  Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus
		5  The LHPA System and Neurobehavioral Development
		6  The Effects of Monoamines on the Developing Nervous System
	B.  STRUCTURAL FOUNDATIONS OF SENSATION, PERCEPTION, AND COGNITION
		7  Mechanisms of Auditory Reorganization during Development: From Sounds to Words
		8  Brain Correlates of Language Processing during the First Years of Life
		9  Brain-Behavior Relationships in Early Visual Development
		10 Motor Systems Development
		11  Neurodevelopment of Social Cognition
		12  Pre- and Postnatal Morphological Development of the Human Hippocampal Formation
		13  Structural Development of the Human Prefrontal Cortex
		14  White Matter Maturation and Cognitive Development during Childhood
II - Methodological Paradigms
	15  Electrophysiological Methods in Studying Infant Cognitive Development
	16  Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development
	17 Diffusion Tensor Imaging
	18  Functional MRI Methods in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
	19  Mechanisms of Language Acquisition: Imaging and Behavioral Evidence
	20  Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Developing Brain
	21  The Integration of Neuroimaging and Molecular Genetics in the Study of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
	22  Neural Network Models of Cognitive Development
III - Neural Plasticity in Development
	23  Early Brain Injury, Plasticity, and Behavior
	24  Developmental Plasticity and Reorganization of Function Following Early Diffuse Brain Injury
	25 Plasticity of the Visual System
	26  Cross-Modal Plasticity in Development: The Case of Deafness
	27  Plasticity of Speech (Animal Model)
IV - Cognition
	28  The Development and Integration of the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Pathways in Object Processing
	29  Attention in Young Infants: A Developmental Psychophysiological Perspective
	30  Nonhuman Primate Models of Memory Development
	31  Neurocognitive Mechanisms for the Development of Face Processing
	32  The Development of Visuospatial Processing
	33  Mechanisms of Change: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Declarative Memory Development
	34  The Development of Executive Function in Childhood
	35  The Development of Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Adolescence: Theoretical Models and a Possible Dissociation of Dorsal versus Ventral Subregions
	36  Cognition and Aging: Typical Development
	37  Cognition and Aging: Dementia
V - Neurodevelopmental Aspects of Clinical Disorders
	38  The Role of Nutrition in Cognitive Development
	39 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
	40  Impact of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on the Developing Nervous System
	41  Neurocognitive Models of Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Insights from Meta-analysis and New Molecular Genetic Findings
	42  Research into Williams Syndrome: The State of the Art
	43  Neurocognitive Development in Autism
	44  Tics and Compulsions: Disturbances of Self-Regulatory Control in the Development of Habitual Behaviors
	45 Developmental Dyslexia
	46  The Development and Cognitive Neuroscience of Anxiety
	47  Developmental Neuropsychology of Unipolar Depressions
VI - Emotion/ Cognition Interactions
	48  Toward a Neurobiology of Attachment
	49  Sleep, Cognition, and Emotion: A Developmental View
	50  Neural Systems, Gaze Following, and the Development of Joint Attention
	51  The Biology of Temperament: An Integrative Approach
	52  The Developing Adolescent Brain: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Nicotine Vulnerability
	53  Environmental Influences on Brain-Behavioral Development: Evidence from Child Abuse and Neglect
	54  Neurocognitive Development of Performance Monitoring and Decision Making
Contributors
Index
Color Plates
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

HANDBOOK OF

DEVELOPMENTAL

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

Second Edition

Page 492

29 Attention in Young Infants:
A Developmental

Psychophysiological Perspective

JOHN E. RICHARDS

Attention, generally defi ned, shows dramatic development

over the period of infancy. At birth infants attend primarily

to salient physical characteristics of their environments or

attend with nonspecifi c orienting (Berg and Richards, 1997).

Between birth and two years the development of alert, vigi-

lant sustained attention occurs. At the end of the fi rst two

years infants’ executive attention system is beginning to

function (Ruff and Rothbart, 1996; Rothbart and Posner,

2001). These dramatic changes in infants are commonly

thought to be based predominantly on age-related changes

in brain structures responsible for attention control.

The present chapter will attempt to accomplish three

objectives. First, brain systems that may be involved in atten-

tion and that show development in infancy will be reviewed.

These systems include a general arousal system that affects

many cognitive functions, as well as specifi c attention systems

that are limited in their effects on cognition and attention.

Second, psychophysiological measures that have been useful

in the study of brain-attention relations in infants will be

presented. The use of heart rate as a measure of the general

arousal system will be emphasized. Finally, several studies

will be examined that used these psychophysiological

methods to study the development of infant attention. This

review will primarily emphasize the use of heart rate as an

index of the development of sustained attention, which is a

general arousal system affecting a wide number of behav-

ioral and cognitive functions controlled by the brain. These

experiments will be related to changes occurring in the

neural systems underlying attention.

Brain systems involved in attention

A������ A��� �
� S����� One emphasis in the cognitive
neuroscience of attention has been on the arousal associated

with energized cognitive activity (Posner, 1995). The arou-

sal emphasis has focused upon the increased behavioral

performance that occurs when attention is engaged.

This increased behavioral performance is associated with

shortening of reaction times in the course of detection tasks,

increased focus of performance on specifi c tasks, and the

sustaining of performance over extended periods of time.

The arousal emphasis is nonspecifi c, affecting multiple

modalities, cognitive systems, and cognitive processes.

Moreover, this arousal emphasis characterizes attention’s

energizing effect on cognitive and behavioral performance.

Attention also may have a selective effect on specifi c cognitive

processes or behavior without arousal properties (next

subsection). In fact, selective attention may serve in some

situations to inhibit behavior if such inhibition is appropriate

for the goal of the task.

Specifi c locations or systems in the brain control the

arousal aspect of attention. The brain systems underlying

this attentional component have been detailed in the theo-

retical and empirical research literature for a number of

years. An example of this arousal emphasis is a model of

neuroanatomical connections between the mesencephalic

reticular activating system and the cortex (Heilman et al.,

1987; Mesulam, 1983). Figure 29.1 presents a diagram

showing this system. This model presumes that information

comes into the brain from visual, auditory, somesthetic, and

other afferent pathways. These pathways have ascending

connections through the thalamus to the cortex and de-

scending connections to midbrain areas. The mesencephalic

ascending reticular activating system infl uences parts of the

thalamus that enhance sensory fl ow and at the same time

stimulates extrinsic neurotransmitters. These effects directly

or indirectly infl uence the limbic system, such as the baso-

lateral nucleus of the amygdala and the subicular portion of

the hippocampus, the cingulate cortex, prefrontal areas, and

association areas (e.g., parietal area PG). This neuroana-

tomical system acts in synchrony to “energize” primary

sensory areas in the cortex and increase the effi ciency of

responding in those areas. This system also infl uences asso-

ciation areas and other attention systems, such as the

posterior attention system described by Posner (Posner,

1995; Posner and Petersen, 1990). The nonspecifi city of this

system is implied by its interconnections with multiple areas

that infl uence cognitive processing. This arousal system

479

Page 493

480 cognition

“invigorates” or “energizes” cognitive processes leading to

increased processing effi ciency, shorter reaction times,

better detection, and sustaining of cognitive performance for

extended periods of time.

According to the model presented in fi gure 29.1, the

arousal aspect of attention works through two mechanisms.

The fi rst mechanism involves the thalamus. The thalamus is

the major sensory connection area between afferent activity

and the cortex. The reticular nucleus and internal medullary

lamina (fi gure 29.1, IML) play a role in this effect. The

reticular nucleus is enhanced both by the ascending reticular

activity and by feedback mechanisms from primary sensory

cortex. In turn, its increased activity positively affects the

activation of several lamina of the thalamus and thus

enhances incoming sensory information. The IML acts as a

connection area between midbrain reticular activity and

other cortical areas. The second mechanism through which

the arousal aspect of attention works is through neuro-

chemical systems. Robbins and Everitt (1995; chapter 6 by

Stanwood and Levitt, this volume) distinguish four neuro-

chemical systems that form the basis for the arousal func-

tions of attention: noradrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic,

and serotoninergic. Figure 29.2 (plate 49) shows the projec-

tions from midbrain nuclei for these four brain systems. The

nuclei that give rise to these four neurochemical systems are

located in brain regions adjacent to the mesencephalic retic-

ular activating system. Robbins and Everitt (1995) review

the evidence linking these neurochemical projection systems

to attention and arousal. The noradrenergic and cholinergic

systems are thought to be the neurochemical systems that

are most closely involved in cortical arousal as it is related

to attention. The dopaminergic system affects the motiva-

tional and energetic aspects of cognitive processing, and the

serotonin system affects the overall control of state. These

four neurochemical systems are closely linked so that more

than one is likely to be operating during an aroused state.

These four neurochemical systems also show changes over

infancy that imply that the arousal controlled by these

systems develops in that time period.

Specific Attention Systems The second manner in which
the brain affects the development of attention in infants

is through brain systems that are specifi c to selected func-

tions. These brain areas show enhanced functioning in the

course of attention but affect only a single (or few) cognitive

functions. Therefore, these systems have only a narrow

impact on attention-based cognitive functioning.

Two of these are worth mentioning in this respect. First,

the enhancement of visual receptive fi elds during attention

to visual stimuli has been widely studied by means of animal

models using invasive preparations (Desimone and Duncan,

1995; Maunsell and Ferrera, 1995). This type of attention is

selective for particular objects, particular spatial locations,

or particular tasks. For example, the responses of visual

V
P

L

M
G

N

D
o

rs
o

m
e

d
ia

l

Extrinsic Neurotransmitters:

Locus Coeruleus (NorE)

Basal Forebrain (Ach)

R
e

ti
c

u
la

r

n
u

c
le

u
s

IM
L

L
G

N

Ascending Reticular

Activating System

Superior

Parietal

Lobe

Eye Movement

(FEF, SC)

Visual (BA 17)

Auditory (STG)

Somatosensory

(PCG)

Visual (BA 18, 19)

Auditory (BA ..)

Somatosensory (BA ..)

P
u

lv
in

a
r

Anterior

Cingulate

&

Prefrontal

Cortex

Primary Sensory CortexSecondary Sensory Cortex

S
o
m

e
s
th

e
tic

A
u
d
ito

ry
V
is

u
a
l

L
a

t
p

o
s

te
ri

o
r

Figure 29.1 The arousal system of the brain.

Page 984

Plate 65 Arc and dendrin, which are involved in synaptic plastic-
ity, are differentially induced in adolescent forebrain following

acute nicotine. (A) Color-rendered images from coronal forebrain
sections hybridized to arc probe in situ revealed a dramatic induc-

tion of arc in the prefrontal cortex of acutely nicotine-treated ado-

lescent rodents. (B) A much less dramatic up-regulation of arc
following acute nicotine was evident in adult animals. (C) Dendrin
mRNA was also induced in specifi c forebrain regions following

acute nicotine treatment of adolescent rodents, while (D) little
change was evident in adult animals. (See fi gure 52.3.)

Nelson_Insert.indd 47 4/25/2008 4:40:55 PM

Page 985

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
First

warning
Efficient
negFB

Negative FB > Positive FB

18–20 yrs
(n = 20)

14–15 yrs
(n = 20)

9–11 yrs
(n = 15)

Error
negFB

First
posFB

Correct
posFB

2

1

1.5

0.5

0

–0.5

–1

First warning

R
C

I
co

n
tr

a
st

v
a
lu

e
R

C
I
co

n
tr

a
st

v
a
lu

e

Efficient negFB Error negFB First posFB Correct posFB

2

1

1.5

0.5

0

–0.5

–1

First warning Efficient negFB Error negFB First posFB Correct posFB

18–20 years
14–15 years
9–11 years

18–20 years
14–15 years
9–11 years

P���� 66 Neural activity associated with the processing of posi-
tive and negative performance feedback for children, adolescents,

and adults. The pattern of activation in anterior cingulate cortex

shows an adult pattern in adolescence, whereas the pattern of

activation in DLPFC does not reach adult levels until late

adolescence. (See fi gure 54.4.)

Nelson_Insert.indd 48 4/25/2008 4:40:56 PM

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