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TitleGrowing gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
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Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Chapter 1. Mushrooms, Civilization, and History
Chapter 2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature
	The Mycorrhizal Gourmet Mushrooms: Matsutake, Boletus, Chanterelles, and Truffles
	Parasitic Mushrooms: Blights of the Forest
	Saprophytic Mushrooms: The Decomposers
	The Global Environmental Shift and the Loss of Species Diversity
	Catastrophia: Nature as a Substrate Supplier
	Mushrooms and Toxic Wastes
	Mushroom Mycelium and Mycofiltration
Chapter 3. Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation
Chapter 4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes
	Methods of Mushroom Culture
	Spore-Mass Inoculation
	Transplantation: Mining Mycelium from Wild Patches
	Inoculating Outdoor Substrates with Pure Cultured Spawn
	When to Inoculate an Outdoor Mushroom Patch
	Site Location of a Mushroom Patch
	Stumps as Platforms for Growing Mushrooms
	Log Culture
Chapter 5. Permaculture with a Mycological Twist
Chapter 6. Materials for Formulating a Fruiting Substrate
	Raw Materials
	Suitable Wood Types: Candidate Tree Species
	Cereal Straws
	Paper Products: Newspaper, Cardboard, Books
	Corncobs and Cornstalks
	Coffee and Banana Plants
	Sugarcane Bagasse
	Seed Hulls
	Soybean Roughage (Okara)
	Structure of the Habitat
Chapter 7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield
Chapter 8. Homemade vs. Commercial Spawn
Chapter 9. The Mushroom Life Cycle
Chapter 10. The Six Vectors of Contamination
Chapter 11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture
	Overview of Techniques for Cultivating Mushrooms
Chapter 12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media
	Preparing Nutrified Agar Media
	Pouring Agar Media
	Starting a Mushroom Strain by Cloning
	Cloning Wild vs. Cultivated Mushrooms
	How to Collect Spores
	Germinating Spores
	Purifying a Culture
Chapter 13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains
	Preserving the Culture Library
	The Stamets “P” Value System
	Iconic Types of Mushroom Mycelium
	The Event of Volunteer Primordia on Nutrified Agar Media
Chapter 14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain
	Features for Evaluating and Selecting a Mushroom Strain
Chapter 15. Generating Grain Spawn
	Formulas for Creating Grain Spawn
	First-Generation Grain Spawn Masters
	Second-and Third-Generation Grain Spawn
	Autoclavable Spawn Bags
	Liquid-inoculation Techniques
	Spore-Mass Inoculation
	Liquid-inoculation Techniques: Mycelial Fragmentation and Fermentation
	Pelletized (Granular) Spawn
	Matching the Spawn with the Substrate: Critical Choices on the Mycelial Path
	Spawn Storage
Chapter 16. Creating Sawdust Spawn
Chapter 17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust
	The Supplemented Sawdust “Fruiting” Formula: Creating the Production Block
	Testing for Moisture Content
	Choosing a Sterilizer, aka Retort or Autoclave
	Sterilization of Supplemented Substrates
	Unloading the Autoclave
	Atmospheric Steam Sterilization of Sawdust Substrates
	Inoculation of Supplemented Sawdust: Creating the Production Block
	Incubation of the Production Blocks
	Achieving Full Colonization on Supplemented Sawdust
	Handling the Blocks Post-Full Colonization
Chapter 18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products
	Alternative Fruiting Formulas
	Heat-Treating the Bulk Substrate
	The Hot Water Bath Method: Submerged Pasteurization
	The “Phase II” Chamber: Steam Pasteurization
	Alternative Methods for Rendering Straw and Other Bulk Materials for Cultivation
	The Hydrated Lime Bath
	The Bleach Bath
	The Hydrogen Peroxide Technique
	The High-Pressure Extrusion Method
	The Detergent Bath
	Yeast Fermentation
Chapter 19. Cropping Containers
	Tray Culture
	Vertical Wall Culture
	Slanted Wall or A-Frame Culture
	Bag Culture
	Column Culture
	Bottle Culture
Chapter 20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation
Chapter 21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species
	Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate
	Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy
	Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development
	The Gilled Mushrooms
		The Himematsutake Mushroom Agaricus blazei
		The Portobello Mushroom Agaricus brunnescens
		The Black Poplar Mushroom Agrocybe aegerita
		The Shaggy Mane Coprinus comatus
		The Enoki Mushroom Flammulina velutipes
		The Clustered Wood-lovers
		The Brown-Gilled Woodlover Hypholoma capnoides
		Kuritake (The Chestnut Mushroom) Hypholoma sublateritium
		The Beech Mushrooms
		Buna-Shimeji Hypsizygus tessulatus
		Shirotamogitake Hypsizygus ulmarius
		The Shiitake Mushroom Lentinula edodes
		The Nameko Mushroom Pholiota nameko
		The Oyster Mushrooms
		Golden Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus
		The Abalone Mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus
		The Pink Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus djamor
		The King Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii
		The Tarragon Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus euosmus
		The Tree Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus
		The Phoenix or Indian Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius, “P. sajor-caju”
		The King Tuber Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus tuberregium
		The Caramel Capped Psilocybes Psilocybe cyanescens complex
		The King Stropharia Mushroom Stropharia rugosoannulata
		The Paddy Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvacea
	The Polypore Mushrooms
		Reishi or Ling Chi Ganoderma lucidum
		Maitake or Hen-of-the-Woods Grifola frondosa
		Zhu Ling or the Umbrella Polypore Polyporus umbellatus
		Turkey Tail or Yun Zhi Trametes versicolor
	The Lion’s Mane Hericium erinaceus
	The Wood Ears Auricularia polytricha
	The Jelly Mushrooms
		White Jelly Mushroom Tremella fuciformis
	The Cauliflower Mushrooms
		The Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa
	The Morels (Land-Fish Mushrooms)
		The Morel Life Cycle
		The Development of Indoor Morel Cultivation
		The Black Morels Morchella angusticeps and Allies
Chapter 22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing
Chapter 23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market
	Harvesting the Crop
	Packaging and Storing the Crop for Market
	Drying Mushrooms
	Marketing the Product
Chapter 24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors
Chapter 25. Cultivation Problems and Their Solutions: A Troubleshooting Guide
	Agar Culture
	Grain Culture
	Straw Culture
	Supplemented Sawdust Culture
	Pre-harvest Period
	Harvest Stage
Appendix 1. Description of Environments for a Mushroom Farm
	The Laboratory Complex
	The Growing Room Complex
Appendix 2. Designing and Building a Spawn Laboratory
	Design Criteria for a Spawn Laboratory
	Good Clean Room Habits: Helpful Suggestions for Minimizing Contamination in the Laboratory
Appendix 3. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation and Development
	Design Criteria for the Growing Rooms
	Managing the Growing Rooms: Good Habits for the Personnel
Appendix 4. Resource Directory
	Recommended Mushroom Field Guides
	Mushroom Book Suppliers
	Annual Mushroom Festivals and Events
	Mushroom Cultivation Seminars and Training Centers
	Mushroom Study Tours and Adventures
	International Mushroom Associations
	North American Mushroom Societies and Associations
	Mushroom Growers Associations
	Sources for Mushroom Cultures
	Sources for Mushroom Spawn
	Sources for Marketing Information
	Mushroom Newsletters and Journals
	Mushroom Museums
	Sources for Medicinal Mushroom Products
	Mycological Resources on the Internet
Appendix 5. Analysis of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation
Appendix 6. Data Conversion Tables
Photo and Illustration Credits
Document Text Contents
Page 2

This book should help advance the cause of mycology and mushroom
biology worldwide. It will be an important reference for those who are
interested in research as well as in the cultivation of mushrooms.

is unique not only in its
treatment of the technical aspects of growing gourmet and medicinal
mushrooms, but also in its emphasis on the environmental importance of
mushrooms in terms of world biological diversity.

Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms is a visionary quest—and
Paul Stamets is your best possible guide—not just for informing you
about growing mushrooms, but for transforming you into a myco-
warrior, an active participant in a heroic, Gaian process of planetary
health through mushroom cultivation.

The Audubon Field Guide to Mushrooms

Stamets draws on the collective experience of centuries of mushroom
cultivation, creating a revolutionary model for the use of higher fungi.
Not only does he cover every aspect of cultivation, he also addresses the
issues of environmentalism, health, and business.

Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms is the most comprehensive
treatment of the subject I have seen in my thirty years as a mycologist
and mushroom specialist.

Pick up this book and prepare to be swept away into the world of
mushroom cultivation on the tide of Paul’s contagious enthusiasm. Doers
and dreamers, students and teachers will all find something to enjoy in
this book.

This book, a true labor of love, makes a major contribution to our
knowledge of the practical production of gourmet and medicinal

Page 665

whereas two close relatives, and , grow primarily
on conifers. grows on hemlocks, as its name implies, while in
the Southwest of North America, this species has been reported on white
fir, In culture, and develop long
stems in response to manipulation of the environment. can
be found on a variety of dead or dying conifers, including . Given
how mutable the formation of the stalk is under different cultural
conditions, and that readily fruits on a variety of
conifer and hardwood sawdust mixtures, delineation of these individuals
based solely on habitat seems highly suspect.

is a much more massive mushroom than and
is characterized by a thick pithy flesh in the cap. Also
favors colder climates whereas is found in warmer regions.
( has not been reported from the Rocky Mountain and Pacific
Northwest regions.) , a species not recognized by
Gilbertson and Ryvarden, but acknowledged by Zhao (1989) and Weber
(1985), grows in eastern North America, and is distinguished from
others by the predominantly yellowish colored cap as it emerges. These
North American “Reishis”— ,
and —represent a constellation of closely related individuals,
probably stemming from a common ancestry. The argument for retaining
them as separate species may be primarily ecological and host specific
and not biological. One of the few cultural distinctions described by
Adaskaveg and Gilbertson (1986) is that produces
chlamydospores in culture whereas does not.
One historic and notable attempt to distinguish the North American
from the Far Eastern taxa can be found in an article published by R.
Imazeki (in Japanese) titled “Reishi and that grow in
Europe and America: Their Differences,” in 1937. Currently, the best
treatises discussing the taxonomy of these polypores are Gilbertson and
Ryvarden’s 1987 monograph, and
Zhao’s of 1989. The spore size of

is smaller than the inclusive range of 13–17 µ in length by 7.5–
10 µ in width characteristic of and . Nevertheless,
Gilbertson and Ryvarden did not consider this feature to be more
significant than habitat when delineating these three taxa in their “Key

Page 666

to Species.” Placing emphasis on habitat may also be a dubious
distinction when considering these species produce fruitbodies on
nonnative woods when cultivated. Features of higher taxonomic
significance—such as interfertility studies and PCR-rDNA fingerprinting
—are needed to support accurate and defensible species delineation. For
instance, interfertility studies with some collections reveal that G. curtisii
(Berk.) Murr. may merely be a yellow form of G. lucidum common to the
southeastern United States. (See Adaskaveg and Gilbertson, 1986 and
1987, and Hseu and Wang, 1991.)

Buried log cultivation of Ling Chi in China.

Shaded log cultivation of Reishi in Japan.

Page 1330

Wasson, R. Gordon, 1.1, 21.1, 21.2
Water crystals, 20.1, 20.2
Web sites
Weil, Andrew, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 24.1
White Elm Mushroom. See Hypsizygus ulmarius
White Jelly Fungus. See Tremella fuciformis
White Jelly Leaf. See Tremella fuciformis
White Morel. See Morchella esculenta
White rot fungi
Wine Cap. See Stropharia rugosoannulata
Wine Red Stropharia. See Stropharia rugosoannulata
Winter Mushroom. See Flammulina velutipes
Witch’s Butter. See Tremella mesenterica
Wolfiporia cocos
Wood. See also Log culture; Sawdust, enriched; Sawdust spawn; Stumps
chips, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2

Wood Blewit. See Lepista nuda
Wood Ears, 3.1, 21.1. See also Auricularia polytricha
Wu Sang Kwuang


Yamabiko Hon-shimeji. See Hypsizygus tessulatus
Yamabushi-take. See Hericium erinaceus
Yanagi-matsutake. See Agrocybe aegerita
Yao, Dusty
Yeast fermentation method
Yellow Morel. See Morchella esculenta
Yield. See also individual species

Page 1331

biological efficiency
optimizing, 7.1, 21.1

Yin Er. See Tremella fuciformis
Yu-er. See Auricularia polytricha
Yuki-motase. See Flammulina velutipes
Yun Zhi. See Trametes versicolor
Yung Ngo. See Auricularia polytricha


Zhu Ling. See Polyporus umbellatus
Zhuzhuang-Tiantougu. See Agrocybe aegerita

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