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TitleGraduate teachers and ICT: the prospect of transformative integration
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Nicola Marion Carr

Submitted in total fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

August 2013

Melbourne Graduate School of Education

The University of Melbourne

Produced on archival quality paper

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graduate teachers attended lectures that were given as PowerPoint presentations, which were

then, sometimes, uploaded to the learning management system. But, for most of the

participants, that was the extent of the reported use of ICT in their pre-service teacher

education programs. Very little, if any, ICT use was modeled in their programs, particularly

in their method subjects, which were intended to focus on both content and pedagogies for

their teaching method area. The following was typical:

At University it was all PowerPoints in our lectures, and then for the method area it

was mostly PowerPoints for our notes. But our tutorials were really opportunities to

discuss different techniques for teaching Science.

Researcher: And did ICT play a role in these tutorial discussions?

No, not really. [INT-Simon-140408]

Three of the participants in this study attended the same University where students in teacher

made extensive use of the online environment but not in ways that were consistent with

read through for her subject, and in one subject conducted an online assessment in the form of

a comprehension test:

You could look at it, print it off, close it [the site] down, find all the answers, go back

in, fill in the thingos [sic] and get the answers right. It was silly because anyone could

do it, all the answers were on the site. It was all through the stuff they had given us.

to evaluate my understanding of the subject.


uring her pre-service teacher education program was otherwise

limited to [INT-Louise-130308].

She did not see any integration of ICT modeled in other subjects she took, including her

method areas of Maths and History.

For most of the participants the role that ICT might play in learning and teaching was

discussed but not modeled during their pre-service programs. The discussion seems to have

been confined to higher order ideals about the importance of integrating ICT but with few, if

any, practical ideas of how to go about this being provided. For example:

ICT was never pushed. It was discussed but never demonstrated. It was discussed in

ut doing in your

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ideas of who or what to use or anything like that. [INT-Louise-130308]

Further, Louise was not convinced that the link between integrating ICT and student learning

was made clear in her teacher preparation, which was a significant factor in her pedagogical


justification that you talk about that these kids are growing up in a world of

. [INT-Louise-


was required to take a compulsory subject that addressed ideas about integrating technology

into classrooms and that provided opportunities for Susie to extend her ICT skills and to

engage with a wide range of approaches to integrating ICT. Susie was also able to participate

in a series of workshops designed to extend skills in a range of ICT applications commonly

used in schools, such as how to use movie editing software and web authoring tools. Susie

also had a methods teacher who made extensive use of ICT in his own teaching and who drew

heavily on his own school classroom experiences to show examples of how he was using ICT

With one exception, the majority of the participants had very limited practice in using ICT or

seeing ICT used in innovative ways in their teaching preparation programs. The importance

of integrating ICT was a key message they received, but most did not gain any first hand

practical experience in how this might happen during their teacher preparation programs.

ICT on practicum placement

During pre-service programs each of the graduate teachers undertook a series of practicum

placements in secondary schools. Once again, however, most of the participants were exposed

to very limited uses of ICT in classrooms. The majority of the participants witnessed the use

websites or DVDs on data projector screens. This was particularly the case for Simon and

Kerrie, who both completed a practicum at RiverValley Heights High School. For example,

Kerrie was keen to share how her mentor had used his laptop extensively to show PowerPoint

presentations to his students and occasionally a video. Kerrie believed that replacing writing

on the board with using PowerPoint presentations that contained pictures and short

animations was more engaging for the students.

All saw word processors used by students to type up assignments and essays and extensive

use of the Internet for research. Susie and Lisa were the two exceptions. Susie saw and made

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framework that guided school curriculum for

Years p-10, current at the time of the fieldwork

for this study.


Victorian Institute of Teaching is a statutory

authority for the regulation of the teaching

profession in Victoria

VIT registration Graduating teachers in Victoria are awarded

provisional registration upon graduating from

their teacher preparation programs. They are then

required to complete their full registration process

within the first two years of teaching. The

registration process includes written submissions

practices, and an assessment by a panel of peers.

Page 272

Minerva Access is the Institutional Repository of The University of Melbourne


Carr, Nicola Marion


Graduate teachers and ICT: the prospect of transformative integration




Carr, N. M. (2013). Graduate teachers and ICT: the prospect of transformative integration.

PhD thesis, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne.

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