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Page 1

GENETIC
TOXICOLOGY OF

COMPLEX MIXTURES

Page 2

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE RESEARCH

Series Editor:

Herbert S. Rosenkranz
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
Graduate School of Public Health
University of Pittsburgh
130 DeSoto Street
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Founding Editor:
Alexander Hollaender

Recent Volumes in this Series

Volume 32-SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX
ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES IV
Edited by Michael D. Waters, Shahbeg S. Sandhu, Joellen Lewtas,
Larry Claxton, Gary Strauss, and Stephen Nesnow

Volume 33-ACID RAIN: Economic Assessment
Edited by Paulette Mandelbaum

Volume 34-ARCTIC AND ALPINE MYCOLOGY II
Edited by Gary A. Laursen, Joseph R. Ammirati, and
Scott A. Redhead

Volume 35-ENVIRONMENTAL RADON
Edited by C. Richard Cothern and James E. Smith, Jr.

Volume 36-SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX
ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES V
Edited by Shahbeg S. Sandhu, David M. DeMarini, Marc J. Mass,
Martha M. Moore, and Judy L. Mumford

Volume 37 -HAZARDS, DECONTAMINATION, AND REPLACEMENT OF PCB:
A Comprehensive Guide
Edited by Jean-Pierre Crine

Volu~e 38-IN SITU EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS
Edited by Shahbeg S. Sandhu, William R. Lower, Frederick J. de Serres,
William A. Suk, and Raymond R. Tice

Volume 39-GENETIC TOXICOLOGY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES
Edited by Michael D. Waters, F. Bernard Daniel, loellen Lewtas,
Martha M. Moore, and Stephen Nesnow

Volume 40-NITROARENES: Occurrence, Metabolism, and Biological Impact
Edited by Paul C. Howard, Stephen S. Hecht, and Frederick A. Beland

A Continuation Order Plan is available for this series. A continuation order will bring
delivery of each new volume immediately upon publication. Volumes are billed only
upon actual shipment. For further information please contact the publisher.

Page 183

MUTAGENIC COMPOUNDS FORMED IN WATER DISINFECTION 183

28. Meier, J.R., H.P. Ringhand, W.E. Coleman, K.M. Schenck, J.W.
Munch, R.P. Streicher, W.H. Kaylor, and F.C. Kopfler (1986)
Mutagenic by-products of chlorination of humic acid. Env. Health
Perspect. 69:101-107.

29. Meier, J.R., R.B. Knohl, W.E. Coleman, H.P. Ringhand, J.W.
Munch, W.H. Kaylor, R.P. Streicher, and F.C. Kopfler (1987) Stud-
ies on the potent bacterial mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-
hydroxy-2(5H)furanone: Aqueous stability, XAD recovery and ana-
lytical determination in drinking water and in chlorinated humic acid
solutions. Mutat. Res. 189:363-373.

30. Meier, J. R. (1988) Genotoxic activity of organic chemicals in drink-
ing water. Mutat. Res. 196(3) :211-245.

31. Monarca, S., J.K. Hongslo, A. Kringstad, and G.E. Carlberg (1985)
Microscale fluctuation assay coupled with Sep-Pak concentration as a
rapid and sensitive method for screening mutagens in drinking wa-
ter. Water Res. 19:1209-1216.

32. Morris, J. C. (1978) The chemistry of aqueous chlorine in relation to
water chlorination. In Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact
and Health Effects, R.L. Jolley, ed. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Ar-
bor, Michigan, Vol. 1, pp. 21-35.

33. Oliver, B.G. (1978) Chlorinated non-volatile organics produced by
the reaction of chlorine with humic materials. Canadian Res. 11:21-
22.

34. Padmapriya, A.A., G. Just, and N .G. Lewis (1985) Synthesis of 3-
chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone. Can. J. Chern.
63:828-832. -

35. Ringhand, P.H., J.R. Meier, F.C. Kopfler, K.M. Schenck, W.H.
Kaylor, and D.E. Mitchell (1987) Importance of sample pH on the re-
covery of mutagenicity from drinking water by XAD resins. Env.
Sci. Tech. 21:382-387.

36. Rook, J. J. (1974) Formation of haloforms during chlorination of nat-
ural waters. Water Treat. Exam. 23:234-243.

37. Simmon, V.F., and R.G. Tardiff (1976) Mutagenic activity of drink-
ing water concentrates. Mutat. Res. 38: 389-390.

38. Streicher, R.B. (1987) Studies of the products resulting from the
chlorination of drinking water. PhD Dissertation, The University of
Cincinnati, Ohio.

39. Sweeney, A.G., and A.M. Cheh (1985) Production of mutagenic arti-
facts by the action of residual chlorine on XAD-4 resin. J.
Chromatogr. 325: 95-102.

40. van Rossum, P.G. (1985) Progress in the isolation and charac-
terization of non-volatile mutagens in a drinking water. Sci. Total.
Env. 47:361-370.

41. Vartiainen, T., and A. Liimatainen (1986) High levels of mutagenic
activity in chlorinated drinking water in Finland. Mutat. Res.
167: 29-34.

42. Wigilius, B., H. Boren, G.E. Carlberg, A. Grimwall, and M. Moller
(1985) A comparison of methods for concentrating mutagens in drink-
ing water: Recovery aspects and their implications for the chemical
character of major unidentified mutagens. Sci. Total Env.
47:265-272.

43. Wilcox, P., F. van Hoof, and M. van der Gaag (1986) Isolation and
concentration of mutagens from drinking water. In Proceedings of
the XVIth Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen
Society, A. Leonard and M. Kirsch-VoIders, eds., Brussels, Bel-
gium, pp. 92-103.

Page 184

CiENOTOXIC AND CARCINOGENIC PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED

FURANONES: IMPORTANT BY-PRODUCTS OF WATER CHLORINATION

J. R. Meier, 1 A. B. DeAngelo, 1 F. B. Daniel, 1
K.M. Schenck,l J.U. Doerger,l L.W. Chang,l
F.C. Kopfler,2 M. Robinson,2 and H.P. Ringhand2

1 Genetic Toxicology Division

2Environmental Toxicology Division
Health Effects Research Laboratory
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Cincinnati, Ohio 45268

INTRODUCTION

Mutagenic activity is frequently detectable in organic concentrates of
drinking water derived from surface waters (11). Because most mutagens
tested to date are animal carcinogens and because mutagens may induce
heritable alterations in germ cells, there is concern as to whether or not
the presence of mutagenic chemicals in drinking water represent an accep-
table human health risk. Identification of the mutagenic components of
drinking water is needed before an accurate assessment of the health
risks can be made. Methods have been developed for the isolation and
identification of mutagens in drinking water (24), but the task of ascrib-
ing mutagenicity levels to specific chemical contaminants has proved dif-
ficult.

Studies comparing the mutagenic activity of raw and finished drink-
ing water samples have shown that the mutagenicity in drinking water is
often attributable to by-products from chlorine disinfection (13). The re-
action of chlorine with humic materials also results in the formation of
mutagens, and provides a reasonable model for the study of mutagens
formed during water chlorination (14,15). Recently, the highly potent
bacterial mutagen, 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2 (5H )-furanone
(MX), has been identified and quantified in chlorinated humic materials
(8,17) and in drinking water in the United States, Finland, and Great
Britain (8-10,17). Of a total of 37 drinking water samples examined thus
far, MX has been estimated to be present at concentrations ranging from
2 to 67 ng/l, and to account for between 5 and 60% of the mutagenicity
present. The discovery of MX is particularly significant in light of the

Genetic Toxicology of Complex Mixtures
Edited by M. D. Waters et al.
Plenum Press, New York, 1990

185

Page 366

374

Socio-economic status, 346
Sodium bicarbonate, 307
Sodium hypochlorite, 237
Sodium phosphate, 307, 316
Soil-corrected potassium, 98
Sole, 263
Somatic mutlitions, 257
Soot(s), 167~ 345, 358 (see also

Coal>
SOS-chromo-test, 216, 222, 229,

242
SOS/UMU test, 186-188
Space heating, 42
Specific emission sources, 355
Specimen banks, 279
Spermhead abnormalitites, 201
Spindle apparatus, 190
Sprague-Dawley rats, 59, 304,

307, 336
Sputum, 275
Squamos cell carcinoma, 345
Steel founding, 345
Sterilization, 216, 222
Stomach, 145, 146, 202, 205, 343
Streptomycin, 59
Styrene, 275
Submicron-sized particles, 161
Succinic acid, 15
Sulfer dioxide (S02)' 35, 77, 90,

103
Summertime, 34, 57, 63
Sunlight, 110
Surface waters, 185
Susceptible individuals, 14iS
Suspended particular matter, 90

indoor, 74, 80
outdoor, 74, 80

Sweden, 89
Swedish Environment Research

Institute, 90
Syrian hamster embryo (SHE),

121
Syrian hamsters, 115

Tar, 122, 358
Target protein, 323
TCDD, 273
TCDD-receptor, 90, 97
T-Cells, 4
TDso, 336
Teflon-coated silica fiber filter,

166
Terminal bronchioles, 85

INDEX

12-0-Tetradecanoxlphorbol-13-ace-
tate (TPA), 114, 120,
186

Thermal decomposition, 315
Thermal decomposition of organic

. materials, 345
Thlilrenes, 131
TM677, 46
Tobacco, 143

blond, 325
consumption of, 346
smoke of, 149, 157, 160, 303,

313
smoking of, 89

Tobacco smoke inhalation, 145
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines,

135, 334
Tokyo, 172
Toluene, 108
Toluene extract, 129
Total particulate matter (TPM),

305 (see also
Particulates)

Total suspended particular matter
(TSP), 90

Toxic agents, 170
Toxicology, 151
Toxin-deactivator, 334
Trachea, 114, 159, 305
Traffic, 90
Trajector studies, 77
Trans-dihydrodiols, 135
Trans-4-dimethylaminostilbene,

274
Transformation, 353
Treated water, 199
Trichlorohydroxyfuranone, 177
Trihalomethanes, 173, 175
dG-NL7(3,8a,9a-trihydroxy-7,8,-

9,10-tetrahydro benzo-
(a)pyrene, 309

Tris HCI, 307, 316
Truck drivers, 348
Tubulin functions, 69
Tumor, 262, 263, 303
Tumor induction, 339
Tumor initiation, 358
Tumor-ini tiation protocol, 357
Two-dimensional gel electro-

phoresis, 6
Tyrosine, 180

Ultrasonification, 166

Page 367

INDEX

Unfractionated samples, 95
United Kingdom, 198

drinking waters of, 208
United States, 127
Unreactive metabolite, 193
Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS),

202
Upwind, 107
Urban air, 82, 89, 97, 104
Urban atmosphere, 103
Urea, 316
Urinary metabolite profiles, 137
Urine, 137, 190, 276
UVA light, 299

Vapors, 105
Vegetables, 144, 146
Ventilation, 42, 172
Vincristine (VCR), 58
Vinyl chloride, 274, 334
Virtually safe dose, 331
Volatile organic chemicals

(VOC's), 273
Volatilization of cooking products,

79, 80

Wales, 262
Washington, 261
Wastewater, 215, 216, 220,

222-226, 229

Water, 149, 355
Waterborne disease, 211
Wellcome Diagnostics, 59
White blood cells (WBC), 274,

293, 298, 313, 318
Whole blood, 59
Wind trajectories, 106

375

Wintertime concentrations, 34, 57
Wood, 160, 161, 345
Wood burning, 165
Wood combustion, 79, 157, 158,

161, 346
stoves, 80, 355
smoke, II, 82, 107, 108

Workplace monitoring, 277

XAD, 174, 198, 200, 203, 206,
208, 216-218, 220, 222,
224, 229, 260

X-chromosome, 4
Xenopus laevis, (Xenopus), 234,

244
X-ray fluorescence, 90
X-rays, 2, 227, 228
Xuan Wei County, 157, 162 (see

also China)
men of, 160
women of, 160

Yugoslavia, 264

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