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TitleGender role conflict, depression, and personality's effect on help seeking behaviors, attitudes, and
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                            2008
Gender role conflict, depression, and personality's effect on help seeking behaviors, attitudes, and academic performance
	Mary Elizabeth Goodwin
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Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and

Dissertations

2008

Gender role conflict, depression, and personality's
effect on help seeking behaviors, attitudes, and
academic performance
Mary Elizabeth Goodwin
Iowa State University

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Goodwin, Mary Elizabeth, "Gender role conflict, depression, and personality's effect on help seeking behaviors, attitudes, and
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Gender role conflict, depression, and personality’s effect on help seeking behaviors,
attitudes, and academic performance




by



Mary Elizabeth Goodwin





A dissertation submitted to the graduate faculty


in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY






Major: Industrial Education and Technology


Program of Study Committee:
Steven Freeman, Co - Major Professor

Gary Phye, Co - Major Professor
Thomas Brumm
Verónica Dark
Roger Smith









Iowa State University


Ames, Iowa


2008


Copyright © Mary Elizabeth Goodwin, 2008. All rights reserved.

Page 74

1. Students, who have higher gender role conflict scores, tend to have higher levels

of the avoidance orientation pattern of academic help seeking.

2. Students with higher gender role conflict scores tend to have more negative

attitudes towards psychological help seeking.

3. Students with high avoidance orientation and more negative attitudes toward

psychological help seeking tend to have less academic success than those who do

not have these attitudes.

4. Restrictive Emotionality negatively impacts academic and psychological help

seeking attitudes.

Recommendations for Future Research

Future research could look at alternative ways to measure help seeking (journals, reflection

papers, and behavioral observations) and the impact of gender role conflict on students (focus

groups), especially in male dominated disciplines. Studies could also explore the results of

various interventions such as educational seminars that teach students about patterns of

behaviors and socialization processes that can hinder their success in school.

References

Addis, M. E., & Mahalik, J. R. (2003). Men, masculinity, and the contexts of help seeking.

American Psychologist, 58, 1693-1716.

Ames, R. (1983). Help-seeking and achievement orientation, perspectives from attribution

theory. In B. DePaulo, A. Nadler & J. Fisher (Eds.), New directions in helping: Vol. 2.

Help-seeking. New York: Academic Press.

69

Page 75

Bergman, S. (1995). Men's psychological development: A relational perspective. In R. L. W.

Pollack (Ed.), A new psychology of men (pp. 68-90). New York: Basic.

Biddle, L., Gunnell, D., Sharp, D., & Donovan, J. L. (2004). Factors influencing help seeking

in mentally distressed young adults: A cross-sectional survey. British Journal of General

Practice, April, 248-253.

Blazina, C., & Watkins, C. E. (1996). Masculine gender role conflict effects on college

men’s psychological well-being, chemical substance usage, and attitudes toward help-

seeking. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 461-465.

Cournoyer, R. J., & Mahalik, J. R. (1995). Cross-sectional study of gender role conflict

examining college-aged and middle-aged men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42,

11-19.

Diener, C., & Dweck, C. S. (1978). An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes

in performance strategy, and achievement cognition following failure. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 940-952.

Dweck, C. S., & Elliott, E. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook

of child psychology: Vol. IV. Socialization, personality, and social development. New

York: Wiley.

Eisler, R. M. (1995). The relationship between masculine gender role stress and men's health

risk: The validation of the construct. In R. Levant & W. Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology

of men (pp. 207–225). New York: Basic Books.

Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-519.

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Page 148

students to see if it helps them to more readily recognize problems and provide more

effective assistance to students. Longitudinal studies could study the effect on retention as a

result of the additional training and education for both students and professionals. The

research could include studying the effect of creating a well-defined, proactive plan to work

with at-risk students that would include an increase in the number of one-on-one regularly

scheduled meetings throughout each semester to forge stronger connections with the students

and which would be specifically focused on the developmental needs of the students.

References

Mahalik, J. M. (1996, August). Gender role conflict in men as a predictor of behavior on the

interpersonal circle. Paper presented at the Symposium on men gender role conflict

research: New directions in counseling men, Toronto, Canada.

Newman, R. S., & Goldin, L. (1990). Children’s reluctance to seek help with school work.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 92-100.

Pennebaker, J. W. (1995). Emotion, disclosure and health: An overview. Emotion, disclosure,

and health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Scheidt, C. E., & Waller, E. (2004). Attachment representation and affect regulation; Current

finding of attachment research and their relevance for psychosomatic medicine. In I.

Nyklicek, L. Temoshok & A. Vingerhoets (Eds.), Emotional expression and health;

Advances in theory, assessment and clinical applications (pp. 225-239). New York:

Brunner-Routledge.

Shapiro, G. (1983). Embarrassment and help-seeking. In B. M. DePaulo, A. Nadler & J. D.

Fisher (Eds.), New directions in helping (pp. 143-161). New York: Academic Press.

143

Page 149

Solano, C. H., Batten, P. G., & Parish, E. A. (1982). Loneliness and patterns of self-

disclosure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 524-531.

Wei, M., Russell, D. W., & Zakalik, R. A. (2005). Adult attachment, social self-efficacy,

self-disclosure, loneliness, and subsequent depression for freshmen college students: A

longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 602-614.



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