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Table of Contents
                            FUNDAMENTALS OF
CATHOLIC DOGMA
	PREFACE
	FOREWORD To the First English Edition
	FOREWORD To the Second English Edition
	ABBREVIATIONS
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
	1. Concept and Object of Theology
	2. Theology as a Science
	3. Concept and Method of Dogmatic Theology
	4. Concept and Classification of Dogma
	5. The Development of Dogma
	6. Catholic Truths
	7. Theological Opinions
	8. The Theological Grades of Certainty
	9. Theological Censures
BOOK ONE The Unity and Trinity of God
	PART 1 The Unity of God: His Existence and Nature
		SECTION I: The Existence of God
			Chapter I: The Natural Knowability of the Existence of God
				1. The Possibility of the Natural Knowledge of God in the Light of Supernatural Revelation
				2. The Possibility of a Proof of God's Existence
				3. Errors Regarding the Natural Knowability of God
			Chapter II: The Supernatural Knowability of God
				4. God's Existence as an Object of Faith
		SECTION II: The Nature of God
			Chapter I: The Knowledge of the Nature of God
				5. The Natural Knowledge of the Nature of God in This World
				6. The Supernatural Knowledge of the Divine Essence in the Other World
				7. The Supernatural Knowledge of the Divine Being in This World through Faith
			Chapter II: The Nature of God in Itself
				8. The Biblical Names of God
				9. The Physical and Metaphysical Nature of God
		SECTION III: The Attributes or Qualities of God
			10. The Attributes or Qualities of God in General
			Chapter I: The Attributes of the Divine Being
				11. The Absolute Perfection of God
				12. God's Infinity
				13. God's Simplicity
				14. God's Unicity
				15. God's Truth
				16. God's Goodness
				17. God's Immutability
				18. God's Eternity
				19. The Immensity or Immeasurability of God and His Omnipresence
			Chapter II: The Attributes of the Divine Life
				20. The Perfection of Divine Knowledge
				21. Object and Division of Divine Knowing
				22. The Medium of the Divine Prescience of the Free Actions of Rational Creatures
				23. The Divine Knowing as Origin of Things
				24. The Perfection of the Divine Willing
				25. The Object of the Divine Volition
				26. The Physical Properties of the Divine Will
				27. The Moral Attributes of the Divine Will
	PART 2 The Doctrine of the Triune God
		SECTION I: The Dogmatic Formulation and Positive Foundation of the Dogma of the Trinity
			Chapter I: The Antitrinitarian Heresies and the Doctrinal Decisions of the Church
				1. The Heresies
				2. The Doctrinal Decisions of the Church
			Chapter II: Proof of the Existence of the Trinity from Scripture and Tradition
				3. Indications of the Trinity of God in the Old Testament
				4. The Trinitarian Formulae
				5. The New Testament Doctrine of God the Father
				6. The New Testament Doctrine of God the Son
				7. The New Testament Teaching concerning God the Holy Ghost
				8. The New Testament Doctrine of the Numerical Unity of the Divine Nature in the Three Persons
				9. The Testimony of Tradition for the Trinity of God
			Chapter III: The Triple Personality of God
				10. The Internal Divine Processions in General
				11. The Procession of the Son from the Father by Way of Generation
				12. The Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son by Way of Spiration
		SECTION II: Speculative Explanation of the Dogma of the Trinity
			Chapter I: Speculative Explanation of the Internal Divine Persons
				13. The Son Proceeds from the Intellect fo the Father by Way of Generation
				14. The Holy Ghost Proceeds from the Will or from the Mutual Love of the Father and the Son
				15. The Holy Ghost Does not Proceed from Generation but from Spiration
			Chapter II: The Divine Revelations and Persons
				16. The Divine Revelations
				17. The Divine Persons
				18. The Divine Personal Properties (Proprietates) and Notions
				19. The Trinitarian Perichoresis (Circumincession)
				20. The Unity of the Divine Operation ad Extra
				21. The Appropriations
				22. The Divine Missions
			Chapter III: The Relation of the Trinity to Reason
				23. The Mysterious Character of the Dogma of the Trinity
BOOK TWO God the Creator
	SECTION 1 The Divine Act of Creation
	Chapter I: The Beginning or the Creation of the World
		1. The Reality of the Divine Creation of the World
		2. The Divine World-Idea
		3. Motive and Purpose of the Creation of the World
		4. The Trinity and Creation
		5. Freedom of the Divine Act of Creation
		6. The Temporal Character of the World
		7. The Incommunicability of the Created Power
	Chapter II: The Continuous Preservation and Governing of the World
		8. The Preservation of the World
		9. The Divine Co-Operation
		10. Divine Providence and the Government of the World
	SECTION 2 The Divine Work of Creation
	Chapter I: Revealed Doctrine Concerning Material Things, i.e., Christian Cosmology
		11. The Biblical Hexahemeron (The Six Days of Creation)
		12. The Doctrine of Evolution in the Light of the Revelation
	Chapter II: The Doctrine of the Revelation Regarding Man or "Christian Anthropology"
		13. The Origin of the First Human Pair and the Unity of the Human Race
		14. The Essential Constituent Parts of Human Nature
		15. The Origin of Individual Human Souls
		16. The Concept of the Supernatural
		17. Relation between Nature and Supernature
		18. The Supernatural Endowment of the First Man
		19. The Various States of Human Nature
		20. The Personal Sin of Our First Parents or Original Sin
		21. The Existence of Original Sin
		22. The Nature of Original Sin
		23. The Transmission of Original Sin
		24. The Consequences of Original Sin
		25. Souls Who Depart This Life in the State of Original Sin Are Excluded from the Beatific Vision
	Chapter III: Concerning the Angels or
 Christian Angelology
		26. Existence, Origin and Number of the Angels
		27. The Nature of the Angels
		28. The Supernatural Exaltation and Probation of the Angels
		29. The Fall through Sin and the Rejection of the Bad Angels
		30. The Efficacy of the Good Angels
		31. The Power of the Bad Angels
BOOK THREE The Doctrine of God the Redeemer
	PART 1 The Doctrine of the Person of the Redeemer
		1. The Historical Existence of Jesus Christ
		SECTION I: The Two Natures in Christ and the Mode and Manner of Their Unification
			2. The Dogma of the True Divinity of Christ, and Its Opponents
			3. The Testimony of the Old Testament
			4. The Testimony of the Synoptic Gospels
			5. The Testimony of the Gospel of St. John
			6. The Testimony of the Pauline Epistles
			7. The Testimony from Tradition
			8. The Reality of Christ's Human Nature
			9. The Integrity of Christ's Human Nature
			10. The Adamite Origin of Christ's Human Nature
			11. Christ Is One Person
			12. On the Duality of the Natures
			13. The Duality of Wills and Modes of Operation in Christ
			14. The Beginning and Duration of the Hypostatic Union
			15. The Supernatural and Mysterious Character of the Hypostatic Union
			16. Onjections against the Dogma of the Hypostatic Union
			17. The Relationship of the Hypostatic Union to the Trinity
			18. The Natural Sonship of God of the Man Jesus Christ
			19. Christ's Right to Adoration
			20. Adoration in the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus
			21. The Communication of Idioms
			22. The Christological Perichoresis
		SECTION II: The Attributes of Christ's Human Nature
			23. The Immediate Vision of God
			24. Christ's Infused Knowledge
			25. Christ's Acquired Knowledge and the Progress of His Human Knowledge
			26. Christ's Sinlessness and Impeccability
			27. Christ's Sanctity and Fullness of Grace
			28. Christ's Power
			29. Christ's Capacity for Suffering
	PART 2 The Work of the Redeemer
		1. The Purpose of the Incarnation
		2. Controversy as to the Conditioned or Unconditioned Predestination of the Incarnation
		3. Concept and Possibility of the Redemption
		4. Necessity for and Freedom of the Redemption
		5. Christ's Teaching or Prophetic Office
		6. Christ's Pastoral or Kingly Office
		7. Reality of Christ's Priestly Office
		8. The Exercise of the Sacerdotal Office or Christ's Sacrifice
		9. The Soteriological Importance of Christ's Sacrifice
		10. Christ's Vicarious Atonement
		11. Christ's Merits
		12. Christ's Descent into Hell
		13. Christ's Resurrection
		14. Christ's Ascension into Heaven
	PART 3 The Mother of the Redeemer
		1. Reality of Mary's Motherhood of God
		2. Mary's Fullness of Grace and Her Dignity Deriving from Her Motherhood of God
		3. Mary's Immaculate Conception
		4. Mary's Freedom from Evil Concupiscence and from Every Personal Sin
		5. Mary's Perpetual Virginity
		6. The Bodily Assumption of Mary into Heaven
		7. The Mediatorship of Mary
		8. The Veneration of Mary
BOOK FOUR The Doctrine of God the Sanctifier
	PART 1 The Doctrine of Grace
		1. The Subjective Redemption in General
		2. The Concept of Grace
		3. Classification of Grace
		4. The Principal Errors Concerning Grace
		SECTION I: Actual Grace
			5. Enlightening and Strengthening Grace
			6. Antecedent and Consequent Grace
			7. Controversy as to the Nature of Actual Grace
			8. The Necessity of Grace for the Acts of the Supernatural Order
			9. Human Nature's Capacity to Act without Grace, and the Limits of This Capacity
			10. God's Freedom in the Distribution of Grace or the Gratuity of Grace
			11. The Universality of Grace
			12. The Mystery of Predestination
			13. The Mystery of Reprobation
			14. The Teaching of the Church on Grace and Freedom
			15. Theological Speculation on the Relation between Grace and Freedom
		SECTION II: Habitual Grace
			16. The Concept of Justification
			17. The Causes of Justification
			18. The Preparation for Justification
			19. The Nature of Sanctifying Grace
			20. The Formal Effects of Sanctifying Grace
			21. The Comity of Sanctifying Grace
			22. The Attributes of the State of Grace
			23. The Reality of Supernatural Merit
			24. The Conditions of Supernatural Merit
			25. The Object of Supernatural Merit
	PART 2 The Church
	PART 3 The Sacraments
BOOK FIVE The Doctrine of God the Consummator
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CORRIGENDA
INDEX OF PERSONS
INDEX OF SUBJECTS
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Page 278

The Doctrine of God the Sanctifier

CHAPTER 3

The Consequences OT Fruits ofJustification or the Doctrine Concerning Merit

§ 23. The Reality of Supernatural Merit

1. Heresies

The Reformers denied the reality of supernatural merit. While Luther at first
taught that all works of the just man are sinful in themselves, on aCCowlt of the sin
remaining in him (cf. D 771: In omni opere bono iustus peccat). he later
admitted that a just man with the help of the Holy Ghost, which he has received,
can and must perform good works (cf. Con£ Aug. Art. 20: docent nostri t
quod llecesse sit bona opera facere), but he denied that these are meritorious.
According to Calvin (Inst. III 12, 4), all works of man are before God II ul1purity
and dirt" (inquinamenta et sordes). In the Catholic doctrine of merit Protes­
tantism sees a belittling ofgrace and ofthe merits ofChrist (cf. D 843), a favouring
of external sanctification through '\vorks. base self-interest, and pharasaical self­
righteousness.
(For the concept of merit see Doctrine of Redemption, Par. II, J.)

2. Teaching of the Church

By llis good works the justified man really acquires a
claim to supernatural reward from God. (De fide.)

The Second Council of Orange declared with St. Prosper of Aquitania and
St. Augustine: "The reward given for good works is not won by reason
of actions which precede grace, but grace, which is unmerited, precedes
actions in order that they may be accomplished meritoriously (Nullis meritis
gratiam praevenientibus debetur merees bonis operibus, si fiant; sed gratia,
quae non debetur, praecedit ut fiant) " (D 191). The Council ofTrent teaches
that for the justified eternal life is both a gift or grace promised by God
and a reward for his own good works and merits (D 809). As God's grace
is the presupposition and fOWldation of (supernatural) good works, by which
man nlerits eternal life, so salutary \vorks are, at the same time gifts of God
and meritorious acts of man: cuius (se. Dei) tanta est erga omnes homines
bonitas, ut eorom velit esse merita, ~uac sunt ipsius dona. D. 810; C£
I4I. The Council is spe:lking here of C true" merit (vere mereri: D 842),
that is, of meritum de condigno. C£ 835 et seq.

3. The Doctrine in Scripture and Tradition

Scripture:

According to Holy W nt, eternal blessedness in heaven is the reward (merees,
remWleratio, retributio, bravium) for good works performed on this earth,
and rewards and merit are correlative concepts. Jesus promises rich rewards
in Heaven to those, who for His sake are scorned and fersecuted: "'Be
glad and rejoice. for your reward is very great in hea~en' (Mt. 5, 12) The

Page 279

; 24. The Conditions of Supernatural Meri&.

Judge of the World decrees eternal reward for the just on the ground of
their good works: Come, ye blessed ofmy Father, possess you the kingdom U
prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry, and
you gave me to eat (Mt. 25, 34 et seq.). In Christ's discourses the reward
motive frequently realfS. C( Mt. 19, 29; 25, 21; Luke 6, 38. St.. Paul,
who stresses grace so much, also emphasises on the other hand, the meritorious
nature of good works performed with grace, by teaching that the reward
is in proportion to the works: He will render to every man according toU
his works" (Rom. 2, 6). "Every man shall rcct'ive his own reward according
to his own labour" (1 Cor. 3, 8). C( Col. 3,24; Hebr. 10,35 ; 11,6. When
be characterises the eternal reward as " the crown ofjustice which the Lord,
the just judge, will render" (2 Tim. 4, 8), he thereby shows that the good
works of the just establish a .legal claim (meritum de condigno) to reward
on God. C£ Hebr. 6, 10.

Tradition:
From the times of the ApOStolic Fathers, Tradition attests the meritoriousness
ofgood works. St. Ignatius of Antioch thus writes to St. Polycarp : "Where
there is great effort there is rich gain " (I, 3). Give pleasure to your generalU
from whom you indeed receive your pay (reward)! Let your laying-in be
your works so that you may receive a corresponding reward" (6. 2). C(
St. Justin, Apo!. I, 43. Tertullian introduced the term" merit," but without
thereby making any material change in the traditional teaching. St. Augustine I
in the struggle against the Pelagians, emphasised the part played by grace in
the performance of good works rnore strongly than did the earlier Fathers,
but alway staught the meritoriousness of good works perfonned with
grace. Ep. 194, S, 19: What merit of man is there before grace by whichU
he can achieve grace, as only grace works every one ofour good merits in us,
and as God. when He crowns our merits, croWDS nothing else but His own
gifts l tt

Natural reason cannot prove the reality of supematural merit since this rests
on the free Divine promise of reward. The general conscience of men bears
witness to the appropriateness of a supernatural reward for supernaturally
good deeds freely performed. C£ S. th. I II 114, I.

§ 24. The Conditions of Supernatural Merit

1. The Meritorious Work itself

The meritorious work must be:

a) Morally good, that is, in accordance with the moral law in its object,
intention and circumstances. Cf. Eph. 6, 8: "Kno~ that whatsoever
good things any man shall do, the same shall he receive from the Lord, whether
he be bond or free. n God, the Absolute Holiness, can reward good only.

b) Free from external coaction and internal necessity. Pope Innocent X
rejected as heretical, (D 1094), the Jansenist teaching that in the condition of
fallen nature freedom from external coaction alone and not from internal

Page 555

543

~~ /

Index to the Old and New Testament

Hebrews-conta. 2,22-169

2,24-187


fl. 6--6 2.25-272

17 3, 18-186


~41 187

253 3. 19 ff-192

265 3, 20 ff-350


12. oZ-164 3,21-329

194 3. 22-194

23° 4, 5-493

293 4,7-488


12,9--100 4,8-251

12, 22-115 428


118 4,17-27°

13, 8-138 S. 1-2-277

13, ro--404 5,4-478

13, I I ff-404 5.7-90

13, 21-231 5, 8-121


5. 10-232.
S,13-283

James

I, 12-267 2. Peter

268


1,17-36 1,4-163

1,18-2 56 251

1,21-446 255

2, 14-446 256

2, 17-254 293

2,24-254 1,4 if-z60
3, 2.--233 J.lo-189

4, 12-446 1,16-486

5,7 tf-486 1.17-128

S,8-488 1,21-59

5,10-446 2,4-117

5. 14-327 lIS


448 119

449 121


5, 14 if-277 2,6--480

445 2,11-)17

446 2,19-107

447 112

450 3,7-495


S,15-33 2 3. 8-37

445 3, 8- 10--488


5, 16-269 3.9-2"'0

316 241

431 245


5.20-446 3,10-495

3, 1.r-495

3.13-495


I Peter 3, 18-262


I, I if-56

I, 18-185 I John

I, 18 ff-2.Il

1,19-152. 1,1-140


188 1,1-3-137

1,23-2 56 I, 5-40

2.21-173 1·7-134


186

2.50

I. 8-233

1.9-419


431

1,18-134

2, I-58


I~S

2, I K-134

2,,2-184


186

188

2.41


2, 18-487

488


2,20-364

2., 22.-487

2,27-226


294

364


2,28-486

3,1-256


258

3, I B-57

3,2-21


102


164

258

318

477


3,5-169

3,8-121


180

3,9-2 55


256

258

263

355


3,12-121


3, 14-2 51

252

2S4

4,2-140

4,3-487

4,7-428

4, 8-19


32

44


4,9-57

62


ISS
159


4.9 tf-I34

4,10--45


186

4, 14 ff-I34

5,3 ff-240

5, S ff- I 34

S, 7 if-56

5, 10-13-134

Page 556

544

I

~- /

Index to the Old and New Testament

John-contd.

5, I3-1f77

5,16--423

S.18-355

S,20-39


62

134


2 John

3-134

7-134


140

487


9-134

[0 if-3IZ


Jude

6-118

119

121


6-']-116
7-116


480

481


9-1I j
I 4-486


Apocalypse

116

I, 5-181

I, 5-7-134

I, B-26�

82

1,17-26

I, 17 tf- I 34

I, IB-280


418

1,20-32 5


ce.2-3-278
2,10-475

3,3-488

3,7-2 80


41B
3,20--221

4, 4-478

4, 8-120

4t 11-82


83

86


S.8-3 18

5,9-1 85

5,11-115


lIB
5, II ff-120
S, 12-I5B

190

5, 12-14-134

6,9-3 17

7,9-17-477

7, II-lIB

7,16-491

8,3-318

II, 3 tf·-474

II, 19-209


I2,I-Z09

12,71£-119

12, 14-208


c.14-48I

14, 4-478

14,13-437

16,15-488

17, ?-3 2 5

17,8-2 44

J9,3-481

19. 10-130

19,13-134

19,16-181


.211

20, 1 1£-475

20, 10--119


480

481


20, 10-15-493

20, 11-495

20, 12 ff.-48y

21, 1-8-495

21, 3-7-477

21,4-491

21,6-26

21,8-480

21, 27-484

22, 5-478

22,9-130

22, 11-262


22, 1~-268�
22, 12 ff-134

22, 13-26

22, 15-480

22,20-137


488

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