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Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOGEOGRAPHY Second Edition
ROUTLEDGE FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY SERIES
TITLE PAGE
ISBN 0415323460
CONTENTS
Series editor's preface
Author's preface to the second edition
Author's preface to the first edition
Acknowledgements
Part I: INTRODUCING BIOGEOGRAPHY
1 WHAT IS BIOGEOGRAPHY?
2 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROCESSES I: SPECIATION, DIVERSIFICATION, AND EXTINCTION
3 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROCESSES II: DISPERSAL
4 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PATTERNS: DISTRIBUTIONS
Part II: ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY
5 HABITATS, ENVIRONMENTS, AND NICHES
6 CLIMATE AND LIFE
7 SUBSTRATE AND LIFE
8 TOPOGRAPHY AND LIFE
9 DISTURBANCE
10 POPULATIONS
11 INTERACTING POPULATIONS
12 COMMUNITIES
13 COMMUNITY CHANGE
Part III: HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY
14 DISPERSAL AND DIVERSIFICATION IN THE DISTANT PAST
15 VICARIANCE IN THE DISTANT PAST
16 PAST COMMUNITY CHANGE
Part IV: CONSERVATION BIOGEOGRAPHY
17 CONSERVING SPECIES AND POPULATIONS
18 CONSERVING COMMUNITIES AND ECOSYSTEMS
Appendix: the geological timescale
Glossary
References
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X,Y,Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF
BIOGEOGRAPHY

Second Edition

Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an accessible, engaging, and comprehensive introduction to
biogeography, explaining the ecology, geography, history, and conservation of animals and plants.
Starting with an outline of how species arise, disperse, diversify, and become extinct, the book exam-
ines how environmental factors (climate, substrate, topography, and disturbance) influence animals
and plants; investigates how populations grow, interact, and survive, and how communities form and
change; and explores the connections between biogeography and conservation.

The second edition has been extensively revised and expanded throughout to cover new topics and
revisit themes from the first edition in more depth. Illustrated throughout with informative diagrams
and attractive photographs, and including guides to further reading, chapter summaries, and an
extensive glossary of key terms, Fundamentals of Biogeography clearly explains key concepts in the
history, geography, and ecology of life systems. In doing so, it tackles some of the most topical
and controversial environmental and ethical concerns, including species overexploitation, the impacts
of global warming, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss, and ecosystem restoration.

Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an appealing introduction for students and all those interested
in gaining a deeper understanding of key topics and debates within the fields of biogeography, ecology,
and the environment. Revealing how life has been and is adapting to its biological and physical
surroundings, Huggett stresses the role of ecological, historical, and human factors in fashioning
animal and plant distributions, and explores how biogeography can inform conservation practice.

Richard John Huggett is a Reader in Geography at the University of Manchester.

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Page 228

in the tail’ in the form of two competing species
of predatory wasp – Neocatolaccus mamezophagus
and Heterospilus prosopidis. The wasp species had
similar life histories and depended upon the bee-
tle as a food source. During the four years of the
experiment, which represented 70 generations, all
three populations fluctuated wildly but managed
to coexist (Figure 11.11). The wasp population
fluctuations were out of phase with one another.
This was because Heterospilus was more efficient at
finding and exploiting the beetle when it was at
low densities, while Neocatolaccus was more effi-
cient at higher prey densities. The competitive
edge thus shifted between the two wasp species as
the beetle density changed with time (owing to
density-dependent changes in reproduction rate
and the effects of the two wasp populations). The
stability of the system was thus purely the result
of predatory and competitive biotic interactions.

Mathematical ‘experiments’

In theory, geography is a crucial factor in the
coexistence of predator and prey populations. A

simple mathematical model showed that, when
predators and prey interact within a landscape,
coexistence is rather easily attained ( J. M. Smith
1974, 72–83). It is favoured by prey with a high
migration capacity, by cover or refuge for the
prey, by predator migration during a restricted
period, and by a large number of landscape ‘cells’.
Furthermore, if the predator’s migration ability
is too low, it will become extinct. If the predator’s
migration ability is high, coexistence is possible
if the prey is equally mobile.

Simple mathematical models of predator–prey
interactions in a landscape have evolved into
sophisticated metapopulation models. These, too,
stress the vital role of refuges for prey species and
migration rates between landscape patches. They
also reveal the curious fact that some meta-
populations may persist with only ‘sink’ popula-
tions, in which population growth is negative
in the absence of migration. However, long-term
persistence requires some local populations
becoming large occasionally (Hanski et al. 1996a).

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I N T E R A C T I N G P O P U L A T I O N S 211

Figure 11.10 Population cycles in a laboratory experiment where a predatory mite, Typhlodromus occidentalis,
feeds upon another mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus. The environment is heterogeneous, consisting of 252 oranges
with one-twentieth of each orange available to the prey for feeding.
Source: Adapted from Huffaker et al. (1963)

Page 229

LIFE AGAINST LIFE: ALTERNATIVES
TO CHEMICAL CONTROL

Pests are organisms that interfere with human
activities, and especially with agriculture. They
are unwelcome competitors, parasites, or preda-
tors. The chief agricultural pests are insects (that
feed mainly on the leaves and stems of plants),
nematodes (small worms that live mainly in the
soil, feeding on roots and other plant tissues),
bacterial and viral diseases, and vertebrates
(mainly rodents and birds feeding on grain and
fruit). Weeds are a major problem for potential
crop loss. A typical field is infested by 10–50
weed species that compete with the crop for light,
water, and nutrients.

Pest control is used to reduce pest damage, but,
even with the weight of modern technology
behind it, pest control is not enormously
successful. In the USA, one-third of the potential
harvest and one-tenth of the harvested crop is lost
to pests. A control operation is successful if the
pest does not cause excessive damage. It is a
failure if excessive damage is caused. Just how

much damage is tolerable depends on the enter-
prise and the pest. An insect that destroys 5 per
cent of a pear crop may be insignificant in ecolog-
ical terms, but it may be disastrous for a farmer’s
margin of profit. On the other hand, a forest insect
may strip vast areas of trees of their leaves, but
the lumber industry will not go bankrupt.

Pests are controlled in several different ways.
The blanket application of toxic chemicals called
pesticides has inimical side-effects on the environ-
ment. Several other options for pest control are
available (Table 11.3).

Biological control

Biological pest control pits predator species against
prey species – parasites, predators, and pathogens
are used to regulate pest populations. Two
approaches exist – inundative biocontrol and clas-
sical biocontrol (Harris 1993). In inundative
control, an organism is applied in the manner
of a herbicide. Like a herbicide, the control
agent is usually marketed by industry. In classical
biocontrol, an organism (or possibly a virus) is

E C O L O G I C A L B I O G E O G R A P H Y212

Figure 11.11 Population changes in a laboratory experiment with a beetle host, the azuki bean weevil
(Callosobruchus chinensis), and two parasitic wasps, Neocatolaccus mamezophagus and Heterospilus prosopidis. The exper-
iment ran for four years. All three populations fluctuated considerably, but they did survive.
Source: Adapted from Utida (1957)

Page 455

snow buttercup (Ranunculus adoneus) heliotropic plant
86

snow, as ecological factor 101
snowshoe hare (Lepus canadensis) predator–prey cycle

208
Soay sheep (Ovis aries) population crash 165
soil water regimes, and forest change 287
solar radiation, as ecological factor 85–7
Solenodon, biogeographical history 310–11
song thrush (Turdus philomelos) extinction on

Shetland 34
South African flat-headed bat (Sauromys petrophilus)

saxicolous species 122
South America, mammalian biogeographical history

297–300
southern beech (Nothofagus) 54, 134, 308
sparsely populated areas, and conservation 369
spatial competition 198–200
speciation: 10, 18–28; as branching of a lineage 25;

processes 18–25; threshold 18
species: and altitude 126–7; coexistence 197–200;

deficiency in seed banks 353; diversity 239; useful to
humans 342

species–area curves 240–1
species–area relationships 240–1
specked rangeland grasshopper (Arphia conspersa)

distribution and habitat requirements 4
spinifex hopping mouse (Notomys alexis) world

champion urine concentrator 100
stabilizing selection 12, 13
standing crop 222
starling (Sturnus vulgaris) intrinsic edge species

74, 137
stasipatric speciation 24–5
steady-state biodiversity 331
steep slopes, as environmental factor 133
stenoecious species 74
stepping-stone islands 41
stepwise extinction 334
stiff sedge (Carex bigelowii) and altitude 126–7
stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) conservation 369
stratification, of vegetation 221
strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) long-day plant 86
stream corridors 139–40
stress-tolerators 177–80
strict nature reserves 355–6, 358
subclimax 255–6
Suberites (sponges) mutualistic partnership with queen

scallop (Chlamys opercularis) 190

substrate specialists 108–10
succession: 255; allogenic 257; autogenic 257;

multidirectional 263–4; primary 257–60, 263–4;
secondary 260–2

succulents 97
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, hyperthermophile: 87;

acidophile 108
sulphur butterfly (Colias eurytheme) and polymorphism

14
supertramps 39–40
survival rates 167
survivorship curves 168
swamps 117
sweepstakes routes 41
Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) in Swiss Alps 104
sympatric speciation 23–4
symplesiomorphies 26
synapomorphies 26

tall frailejón (Coespeletia timotensis) rosette plant on talus
107–8

tamarack (Larix laricina) fugitive-strategist 319
tamarisk (Tamarix hispida) in USA 44
tamarugo (Prosopis tamarugo) extreme substrate

adaptation 110
Tana River crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus

galeritus) PVA 346
tapirs: 201; family history 4, 6–7
taxon pulse 295–7
tayra (Eira barbara) predator 279
Telicomys gigantissimus, rhinoceros-sized South American

rodent 299
temperate distribution 58, 61
temperature, as an environmental factor 87–93
termites, and mutualism 190
territory 83
theory of island biogeography: 242–8; criticisms

244–6; new models of 246–8; and conservation
practice 360–7

thermal neutral zone 87–8
thermophiles 87
therophytes 79, 111, 113
three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) habitat

generalist 73
Thylacosmilus, and convergent evolution 298–9
ticklegrass (Agrostis scabra): chaotic dynamics 166–7;

spatial competition 200
tiger beetle (Cicindela repanda) fruit-eater 202
tight metapopulations 172

I N D E X438

Page 456

tobacco mouse (Mus poschiavinus) and stasipatric
speciation 24

todies, Caribbean birds 313
tolerance 74–83
tolerance model 257
topoclimates 130, 133
toposequences 133–4
trails, as corridors 138
transitional zones (between biogeographical regions)

54–6
tree islands 116
tree pipit (Anthus trivialis): 220; habitat selection 83
tree-throw 146–7
trumpeter swan (Olor buccinator) and range collapse 33
tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus): as evolutionary relict 63,

64; and predators 158
twinflower (Linnaea borealis) 92, 97, 98

unprotected areas 367–70
upper critical temperature 88

variegation model 135
vegetation succession 255
Venn diagram 26
Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) carnivorous plant 205
vernalization 91
vicariance biogeography 4, 305
vicariance events 20, 22
vicariance, in distant past 305–15
vicars (ecological equivalents) 76
Viking funeral ship 313, 398
vitalists 265
von Liebig, Justus 74
VORTEX, software for PVA 345, 347

Wallace, Alfred Russel, seminal biogeographer 296
Wallacea 55, 56
wall-flower (Cheiranthus cheiri) chomophyte 106
wallum vegetation 113
wandering albatross (Diomedia exulans): cohort-survival

model 170–1; K-strategist 177
water stress 93, 285–6
water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) wetland species 97, 274
water vole (Arvicola terrestris) and introduced mink in

UK 44

wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa): 133–4, calcifuge
108–9

wet soil biomes 117–19
wetlands: 117, 272; drying out 281; loss of 272–8;

restoration on Prince Edward Island 374–6
whinberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) on quartzite 113
white admiral butterfly (Ladoga camilla) and global

warming 279
whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and polymorphism 15
white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): 154; size

change during Holocene 318
whooping crane (Grus americana) range collapse 33
wilderness areas 355–6, 358
wildlife sanctuaries 355, 358
willow (Salix) in Europe 134–5
windward slopes, and vegetation 132
wolf (Canis lupus) range size 64, 82
wonder violet (Viola mirabilis) and aspect 130
wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) 220
wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in cultivated

landscapes 142
woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and temperature 89
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC)

343
World Wildlife Fund (WWF) 343

xerophytes 97–9

yapok (water opossum) (Chironectes minimus) aquatic
marsupial 298

yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) saxicolous
species 120–1

Yellowstone National Park, USA 358
yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus xanthopygos) and

Bergmann’s rule in Israel 17–18

zebra finch (Taeniopygia castanotis) K-strategist 177
zonal plant formation (formation-type) 104
zonobiomes 101–4
zonoecotones 104
zoochores 38
zoocoenose 217
zoomass 225
zooplankton 232
zoos (zoological gardens) 349–50

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I N D E X 439

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