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TitleFrom Epicurus to Christ - A study in the Principles of Personality
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FROM EPICURUS TO
CHRIST

A STUDY IN THE PRINCIPLES
OF PERSONALITY

BY

WILLIAM DE WITT HYDE
PRESIDENT OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE

"Be a personi and respect others as persons?
HEGEL

gorfc

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.

1904

All rights reserved

Page 2

COPYRIGHT, 1904,

BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 1904.

Norwood Press

J. S. Gushing Sf Co.
Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

Page 146

138 FROM EPICURUS TO CHRIST

cardinal virtues. In the state it is the ruling

principle, and its agents are the philosophers. As

Plato says in a famous passage :
" Until then

philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of

this world have the spirit and power of philosophy,

and political greatness and wisdom meet in one,

and those commoner natures who follow either to

the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand

aside, cities will never cease from ill, no, nor

the human race, as I believe, and then only will

this our state have a possibility of life and behold

the light of day." Precisely so, no individual will

attain his true estate until this philosophic prin

ciple, which sees the good, through training

has been so developed that it can bring both

appetite and spirit into subjection to it, as a

charioteer controls his headstrong horses.

RIGHTEOUSNESS THE COMPREHENSIVE VIRTUE

We now have three of the cardinal virtues :

f temperance, the subjection of appetite to reason j

1 fortitude, the control of the spirit by reason ; and

wisdom, won through education, the assertion of

the dictates of reason over the clamour of both

appetite and spirit. But where, amid all this,

Page 147

PLATONIC SUBORDINATION 139

Plato asks, is righteousness ? In reply he re

marks, "that when we first began our inquiry,

ages ago, there lay righteousness rolling at our

feet, and we, fools that we were, failed to see her,
like people who go about looking for what they
have in their hands. Righteousness is the com

prehensive aspect of the three virtues already con

sidered in detail. It is the ultimate cause and

condition of the existence of all of them. Right

eousness in a state consists in each citizen doing

the thing to which his nature is most perfectly

adapted : in minding one s own business, in other

words, with a view to the good of the whole.

Righteousness in an individual, then, consists in

having each part of one s nature devoted to its

specific function : in having the appetites obey,

in having the spirit steadfast in difficulty and

danger, and in having the reason rule supreme.

Thus righteousness, that subordination and co

ordination of all the parts of the soul in the

service of the soul as a whole, includes each of the

other three virtues and comprehends them all in

the unity of the soul s organic life, "For the

righteous man does not permit the several

elements within him to meddle with one another,

but he sets in order his own inner life, and is his

own master, and at peace with himself ; when he

Page 292

284 INDEX

Omar Khayyam, 15-17, 38.
Opinion in our power, 74-75, 87.
Optimism, superficiality of mod

ern, 82.

Otherworldliness, 36.

Pain, 2, 4.
Parasitic character of Epicurean

ism, 40, 44-45.

Patience, 128.

Perfectionism, 92-93.

Pessimism, 37-38.

Philosophers as kings, 138.

Plato, completed in Christianity,
273-274.

Defects of, 120-122, 162-168.

Merits of, 159-162, 278.
On

Athletics, 136.

Cardinal virtues, 123-131.

Democracy, 147-149.
Education, 131-138.
The good, 130, 137.
Literature in education, 132-

135.

Philosophers as kings, 138.
Riches and rich men, 145-147.
Righteousness, 113-123, 138-

142, 153-159.

Play, 26-28.

Pleasure, 2-4, 20, 39, 50-65, no-
iii, 169-175, 234-235.

Politician, 117-119, 150-152.

Polytheism, modern form of, 222.

Poverty, 4.

Power, things in our, 74.

Present, the time to live, 6, 36.

Procrastination, 6-7.

Profanity, Christian definition of,

222-223.

Prudence, 5-6, 20, 200.

Puritanism, 279.

Reading Gaol, 227.
Religion of Stoics, 95-100.

Reverence, 215.
Rewards and penalties not essen

tial to virtue, 112-115.

Riches, 4-5, 67-69, 89, 145-147,
221-222, 235-236.

Righteousness, 113-123, 138-142,

153-159.

Romola, 46-51.

Sabbath, Christian keeping of, 223-
224.

Sacerdotalism, 245, 279.

Sacrifice, 254-256.

Salvation, Christian way of, 220,
232-333-

Self-regard and excessive self-sac

rifice, 10-15.

Self-righteousness, 217.
Seneca s pilot, 77.
Sexual morality, 202-204, 227-229,

240-241.

Sin, 93, 231.

Sleep, 22.

Social nature of man, 60-62, 176-
179.

Socrates prayer, 159.

Sorrow, Stoic attitude toward, 76-77.

Spencer, 10-15, 268-269.

Spirit, one of three elements in our

nature, 126-128.

Stealing, Christian definition of, 229.

Stevenson, 18, 19, 201.

Stoic

Acceptance of criticism, 103.
Attitude toward sorrow, 76-77,

78, 80, 101-102.

Cosmopolitanism, 94-95.
Doctrine of no degrees in vice,

90-92.

Equanimity, 103-105.
Fortitude, 105-106.

Indifference, 71-81.

Paradoxes, 90-95.
Perfection of the sage, 92-93.

Religion, 95-103.

Resignation, 97, 104-105.
Reverence for law, 82-86.

Solution of problem of evil, 87-90.
Stoicism, coldness of, 107-109.

Completed in Christianity, 269-
273-

Page 293

INDEX 28 S

Stoicism [continued]
Defects of, 106-109, JS9-
Permanent value of, 101-106, 278-

279.
Two principles of, 101.

Temperance, 200-204.
Theatre, 27.

Therapeutics, Christian, 256-266.
Tito Melema, 46-51.
Tranquillity, 75.

Travel, foreign, the paradise of

Epicurean women, 42.
Trial, Stoic endurance of, 75, 89-90.

Tyranny, Plato on, 149-153.

Tyrant, most miserable of men, 153.

Unrighteousness the greatest evil,

140-141, 154-157.

Vanity, 249.

Vexation, Stoic formula for, 78.
Virtue, 87-88, 110-116, 199-208.

Wealth, 4-5, 67-69, 145-148, 182,

221-222, 235-236.

Whitman, Walt, 17, 18, 216.

Wisdom, 129-131, 199.
Work, excessive, 10-15, 23~25>

Christian attitude toward, 242-

243-

Worry, folly of, 24, 29-30, 33.

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