Download Food safety in the seafood industry : a practical guide for ISO 22000 and FSSC 22000 implementation PDF

TitleFood safety in the seafood industry : a practical guide for ISO 22000 and FSSC 22000 implementation
File Size5.0 MB
Total Pages197
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Copyright Page
Chapter 1 Fishery sector
	1.1 Characterization of seafood
		1.1.1 Classification
		1.1.2 Anatomy
		1.1.3 Chemical composition
		1.1.4 Marine ecosystem
	1.2 Characterization of the seafood industry
		1.2.1 Development of the fish industry
		1.2.2 Fish consumption and international trade
		1.2.3 Fish production
		1.2.4 Fish as a source of income
		1.2.5 World fleet
		1.2.6 The status of fishery resources
		1.2.7 Unveiling the future
	1.3 Hazard assessment in seafood
		1.3.1 Biological hazards
		1.3.2 Chemical hazards
		1.3.3 Physical hazards
	1.4 Risks and benefits of seafood consumption
		1.4.1 Seafood at the beginning of modern human brain
		1.4.2 Benefits and risks
Chapter 2 Food safety
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 The Codex Alimentarius
	2.3 HACCP system: Hazard analysis and critical control points
		2.3.1 History
		2.3.2 HACCP system
	2.4 Food safety standards
		2.4.1 IFS Food Standard (Version 6)
		2.4.2 BRC Global Standard for Food Safety (Issue 6)
		2.4.3 SQF Code (7th Edition Level 2)
Chapter 3 The EN ISO 22000:2005
	3.1 History
	3.2 Structure
	3.3 Implementation
		3.3.1 Pressure (drivers)
		3.3.2 Method of implementation
		3.3.3 Difficulties and challenges
		3.3.4 Benefits
	3.4 Changes in the organization
		3.4.1 Initial resistance
		3.4.2 Other changes
		3.4.3 Factors for success
	3.5 Technical specification ISO/TS 22002-1
Chapter 4 Food safety management system EN ISO 22000:2005
	4.1 Introduction (Clauses 1–3)
	4.2 Food safety management system (Clause 4)
		4.2.1 General requirements (Clause 4.1)
		4.2.2 Documentation requirements (Clause 4.2)
	4.3 Management responsibility (Clause 5)
		4.3.1 Management commitment (Clause 5.1)
		4.3.2 Food safety policy (Clause 5.2)
		4.3.3 Food Safety Management System planning (Clause 5.3)
		4.3.4 Responsibility and authority (Clause 5.4)
		4.3.5 Food Safety Team leader (Clause 5.5)
		4.3.6 Communication (Clause 5.6)
		4.3.7 Emergency preparedness and response (Clause 5.7)
		4.3.8 Management review (Clause 5.8)
	4.4 Resource management (Clause 6)
		4.4.1 Human resources (Clause 6.2)
		4.4.2 Infrastructure and work environment (Clauses 6.3 and 6.4)
	4.5 Planning and realization of safe products (Clause 7)
		4.5.1 General (Clause 7.1)
		4.5.2 Prerequisite program (PRPs) (Clause 7.2)
		4.5.3 Preliminary steps to enable hazard analysis (Clause 7.3)
		4.5.4 Hazard analysis (Clause 7.4)
		4.5.5 Establishing the operational prerequisite programs (PRPs) (Clause 7.5)
		4.5.6 Establishing the HACCP plan (Clause 7.6)
		4.5.7 Updating of preliminary information and documents specifying the PRPs and the HACCP plan (Clause 7.7)
		4.5.8 Verification planning (Clause 7.8)
		4.5.9 Traceability system (Clause 7.9)
		4.5.10 Control of nonconformity (Clause 7.10)
	4.6 Validation, verification, and improvement of food safety management system (Clause 8)
		4.6.1 General (Clause 8.1)
		4.6.2 Validation of control measure combinations (Clause 8.2)
		4.6.3 Control of monitoring and measuring (Clause 8.3)
		4.6.4 Food safety management system verification (Clause 8.4)
		4.6.5 Improvement (Clause 8.5)
Chapter 5 The FSSC 22000 certification
	5.1 History
	5.2 Scope
		5.2.1 Certification scope
	5.3 Prerequisite program
	5.4 Additional requirements
		5.4.1 Specifications for services
		5.4.2 Supervision of personnel in application of food safety principles
		5.4.3 Specific regulatory requirements
		5.4.4 Announced but unscheduled audits of certified organizations
		5.4.5 Management of inputs
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Document Text Contents
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82 Food Safety in the Seafood Industry

Internal structures and fittings
Within the facility, all surfaces that are in contact with the product must be resis­
tant to corrosion, made of a waterproof material, light colored, flat, and easily
cleanable. The ceiling and overhead fixtures must be prepared to minimize the
accumulation of dirt and the falling of particles. The internal walls must be easily
cleanable and made of nontoxic and corrosion‐proof materials.

The floor must be resistant to dropped products, water, and disinfectants and
must be nonslip. The facility must have a water draining system that guarantees
an appropriate flow. This system should include grids and/or removable drains to
allow the easy cleaning of the facility. Corners between walls and floors must be
designed to prevent accumulation of dirt.

Windows should be constructed to minimize the accumulation of dirt and
must be protected with a mesh to prevent the entry of insects. Meshes must be
removable and made of washable materials.

Doors must be flat, made of waterproof and washable materials, and guarantee
the effective isolation between areas. They must always be closed when not in

To project a fish unit, the following physical and geographical factors of an appropriate
location must be considered:
• size of the land: if it is appropriate to the current needs and future development;
• accessibility: by road and/or railways;
• water quality, energy, and waste removal/treatment services: should be appropriated and

available throughout the year;
• waste removal: construction, design, location, and suitability of the space designed for that

purpose; and
• pollution of adjacent areas – Evaluate the contamination of future facilities by air, through

smoke, dust, ash or unpleasant odours present in the region.

particular case: Ships
To project a ship it is important to be aware of certain aspects in order to minimize product
contamination or deterioration.
• A good draining system must be in place to prevent standing water, which may cause the

proliferation of microorganisms.
• Construction of interior walls must be avoided in order to facilitate cleaning and sterilization,

and to prevent the accumulation of dirt.
• Harmful substances from the ship, including smoke, fuel oil, and water from the ship’s hold,

must not contaminate the fish.
• The containers for offal and waste material should be clearly identified and be made of a

waterproof material.
• The entry of birds, insects, or other pests into the workplace should be prevented.
• Ships designed and equipped to preserve fishery products for more than 24 hours should

have holds, tanks, and vessels to freeze or refrigerate the products, respecting the temperatures
established for that purpose.

Box 4.5 Construction and layout of buildings (example of fish unit in land and in ship)

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Food safety management system EN ISO 22000:2005 83

use. The doors and internal openings should be designed to minimize the entry of
exterior materials and pests. It is advisable to use doors that close automatically
(e.g., roll‐up or swinging doors).

Location of equipment
Equipment shall be constructed of removable or easily transportable
components to allow its maintenance, cleaning, disinfection, and monitoring.
It should be designed in order to minimize corners (prevent the accumulation
of dirt).

Laboratory facilities
Laboratory facilities should not have direct access to the production area and must
be located and operated in a way that prevents contamination of food products.
Their location shall take into account the level of risk that it might pose to the
product. For example, if the laboratory manipulates pathogenic microorganisms,
it must be located far from the production area.

Temporary or mobile premises and vending machines
Vending machines shall be constructed in such a way as to avoid food contamina­
tion and pest harborage. When defining its location, the organization must take
into account the risk of product contamination and consider reinforcing pest con­
trol (Prerequisite 9).

Storage of food, packaging materials, ingredients,
and nonfood chemicals
The facilities used for storage should protect the products from different sources of
contamination (e.g., dust, waste, condensation drains). Storage areas shall be well
ventilated and guarantee the ideal conditions of temperature and humidity
defined for each food product. They should be designed to allow the separation of
raw materials, work in progress, and finished products. The products shall be
stored off the floor with easy access to allow the realization of inspection, cleaning,
and pest control activities.

The facilities should have a specific area to keep the cleaning products, chemi­
cals, and other hazardous substances. Access to these materials must be controlled
in order to prevent their careless use which may constitute not only a risk to the
health of personnel but also a risk to the product if, for example, excessive
amounts of them are used. It is recommended that access to the storage is pre­
vented or is limited to personnel with specific training.

The storage process should be appropriate to avoid crushing or breaking the
product or packaging. The fact that a product can cause damage to other products
by putting pressure on them should be considered and avoided. The personnel in
charge of these operations should have relevant training, particularly in the use of
forklifts or pallet jacks.

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180 Index

Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed
(RASFF) 145–166

analysis by hazard 149–154
analysis by hazard classification 147–149
analysis by physical state 154–160
analysis by product category 160–166
biological hazards 149–152
chemical hazards 152–154
concepts and definitions 145–147
hazard analysis 107
notifications analysis 147–166
physical hazards 154

raw consumption 19–20
rework 96–97
risk assessment 100, 108–110

Safe Quality Food (SQF) 41–43, 137
Salmonella spp. 18, 49, 150, 159
saxitoxins 24
seafood characterization 1–11

anatomy 2–6
chemical composition 6–10
marine ecosystem 10–11
taxonomic classification 1–2

seafood consumption
evolution of modern human brain

international trade 12–13
risks and benefits 19–20, 28–30

seafood industry characterization 11–15
development of the fish industry 11–12
fish as a source of income 13
fish consumption and international

trade 12–13

fish production 13
future directions 14–15
status of fishery resources 14
world fleet 13–14

smoked foodstuffs 158–160
SOP see standard operating procedures
Space Food Sticks 35–36
Sperber, Dr William H. 38–39, 78, 125
SPS Agreement 32–33
SQF see Safe Quality Food
standard operating procedures (SOP) 147
Staphylococcus aureus 17–18
sulfites 152–153
suppliers 88

traceability system 96–97, 116–117
trematodes 19

unannounced audits 137
utilities 84–85

validation of control measures 122–123
verification of FSMS 124–126
verification planning 115–116
veterinary medicines 23
Vibrio spp. 18–19, 149–150
viruses 19
vitamins 9–10

warehousing 97–98
waste disposal 86
water content 7
withdrawals 121
world fleet 13–14

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