Download Folk Stories and Personal Narratives in Palestinian Spoken Arabic: A Cultural and Linguistic Study PDF

TitleFolk Stories and Personal Narratives in Palestinian Spoken Arabic: A Cultural and Linguistic Study
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.5 MB
Total Pages269
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Contents
Acknowledgements
Transcription System
List of Narrators
1 Introduction
2 The Oral–Written Divide
3 The Lore and Tales of the Folk
4 Narratives of Personal Experience
5 The Arabic Language – lisān al-'arab
6 Cultural Characteristics of the Texts
7 Linguistic Features of the Oral Narratives
8 The Texts
9 Observations and Conclusions
Appendix
Notes
Bibliography
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Folk Stories and Personal Narratives in Palestinian
Spoken Arabic

Page 134

Linguistic Features of the Oral Narratives 121

In the following example, the narrator omitted the object and so he
uses the aside to add it.

āh u s.āru ‘ādāt hadūla nishar f il lēl ‘alal /- willi mā yirūh. iš yishar ya‘t.i
‘ašar ikrūš la wāh. ad yarūh. yishar ‘aneh – ‘a sikt il-h. adı̄deh ‘Yes and
they started and it became a habit to stay up on the … and whoever
wouldn’t go and stay up would give ten pence to someone to go and
stay up on his behalf – on the railway.’ (AJ)

The narrator omits the object ‘a sikt il-h. adı̄deh after ‘alal ‘on the’ which
he then adds in the aside.

In some cases, asides have an emphatic function in that they affirm
or emphasise what has already been said.

... nih. na jamā‘itna bukutlu wāh. ad min jamā‘a hadlāk – gatil mōt ya‘ni
bugutlūh ‘… we, our group kill someone from their group – kill,
death, I mean they kill him’. (AMS)

The narrator repeats what he has said again in the aside, thus emphasis-
ing the action that is being described.

Some asides serve to explain the meaning of a point that has been
made or the motivation behind an action.

... māxid abū biddu yih. ut.t.u f i hāy il-maġāra – čubur ya‘ni. biddōš iyyāh
‘... he has taken his father and wants to put him in a cave – in other
words, he’s grown old. He doesn’t want him.’ (IA)

This aside explains that the reason the son is taking his father to a cave
is because čubur – root (k b r) ‘he grew old’.

gālat yā rabbi tiglib inteh mēbarah u farasak ibrēh – mišān mā yušūfhummiš
had

ˉ
āk ‘she said, oh my lord please may you be turned into a big needle

and your horse into a needle – so that he doesn’t see them’. (IA)

This explanatory aside explains why the female protagonist requests
that he be turned into a big needle and his horse into a needle: so that
the ghoul does not see them.

h. at.t.u ēš. ma‘ kut
ˉ
ur il-mas.āri – la?annhim baku yibı̄‘u arz∙ u ma arz∙ u išı̄

lal yahūd ‘what did they put? Because of the excess money – because
they used to sell land and the like and stuff to the Jews.’ (AA)

Page 135

122 Folk Stories and Personal Narratives in Palestinian Spoken Arabic

This aside explains the statement that precedes and why the people
from this particular village were so wealthy – ‘because they used to sell
land and the like to the Jews’. (The ma, used as it is here in the dialect,
preceding arz∙ , is used in phrases where the noun is repeated to convey
the idea ‘and the like’.)

The following asides are specific and they explain the meanings of
particular words:

s.ārat il-ġalleh u hū miyyit ah. san min il-ġalleh – yis.awwū mas.āri – lamma
kān t.ayyib ‘the takings whilst he was dead became better than the
takings – they would make money – when he was alive’. (AR)

Here the narrator uses the aside to explain the meaning of the word
ġalleh which means ‘yield’.

imnı̄ji binlāgı̄hum h. āt.t.ı̄n il-kalabšāt ‘al bāb il-ra?ı̄si – kalabšāt hadūl
il f il ı̄d ‘ašān biddhum yi‘tiqlū ‘We come to find that they have put
handcuffs on the front door – handcuffs, the things they put on the
arms because they want to arrest him.’ (IIM)

The aside allows the narrator to explain the meaning of kalabšāt ‘hand-
cuffs’ and what it signifies when they are placed on the door.

Some asides explain the meaning of a word by providing a synonym.

... yikūnu imh. ad
ˉ

rı̄n xamı̄reh – ‘ajı̄n ‘… they would have prepared yeast –
dough’. (AMS)

The noun xamı̄reh means ‘yeast’ but in some parts of Palestine it can
also mean ‘dough’, hence this narrator adds the aside ‘ajı̄n ‘dough’ to
explain the intended meaning.

As the following examples show, asides can also be used to explain
cultural and temporal specificities which are no longer present.

illa hum im‘adyeh wallāh hal māšt.a – hāda ba?ū min zamān yizaw?u
il-‘arāyis. mara itrūh. u tāxud il-‘arāyis u t-trūh. itzawwi?hum ‘All of a sud-
den this hairdresser passed by – in the past they would do up a bride. A
woman would go and take the brides and go and make them up.’ (IM)

This aside elucidates the meaning and role of a māšt.a: a female hair-
dresser and make-up artist who in the past would have done a bride’s
hair and make-up on her wedding day.

Page 268

Index 255

memory 14, 30–2, 36, 47, 51, 67, 71,
73, 83, 223, 227

collective 14, 67–8, 73, 227
individual 31, 47, 51, 71, 83,

227
men 84, 172, 219–23

age 83, 220, 222, 226
code-switching 172, 176

monogenesis 43
Muhawi, I. 60
Muhawi, I. and Kanaana, S. 5, 42,

46–7, 57, 60, 63, 189, 190, 192,
195, 204, 206, 219

Nabati poetry 24, 26, 30
Nakba 3, 11, 13–15, 60, 69, 74, 76,

173, 184, 208, 210, 217, 222
Naksah 14
names 57, 72, 74, 114, 170

in collective memory 72
significance of 72–4
symbolic meaning 72–3

naming 22, 57, 72–4
narrative jarring 32
narratives 1, 2, 10, 12, 139, 151,

166, 185, 191, 200, 215, 225–6
factual 1, 2, 10, 12, 139, 151, 166,

215, 225–6
fictional 1, 2, 10, 12, 185, 191,

200, 225–6
fixed 24–6, 208
flexible 24, 26
see also folklore; personal narratives

Ong, W. 18, 21, 26–7
Oral Formulaic Theory 29–30
oral tradition 21, 23–5, 30, 33–9, 47,

61, 113
Orwin, M. 25, 55

Palestine 6, 8–10, 13–17, 46–7, 50,
60–1, 66–77, 88–9, 116–17, 174,
184, 199, 220

British Mandate 14–15, 76
see also Arab–Israeli conflict;

Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Parry–Lord 21, 29, 190

see also Lord, A.
Peel Commission 15

performance 2, 18, 24–30, 32, 41,
43, 45, 51, 54, 85

audience 25–6, 28, 32, 41, 43–5
performer 24–6, 28–30, 41, 45, 51

personal narratives 12–14, 46,
65–6, 68–77, 87, 114, 116–18,
123–8, 139, 141, 143, 166, 180–4,
208–17, 222–7

plot 20, 28, 43, 45, 51, 53, 55, 57,
60–2, 87, 118, 128, 139, 142, 185,
188, 190

polygenesis 43
Porter Abbott, H 20, 31–2, 54, 225
Propp, V. 26, 29, 40, 51–3, 61
proverbs 22, 29, 37, 42, 46, 53, 63,

73, 108, 113, 168, 207
proverb stories 46, 49–50, 52–3,

199, 203

(Q) standardisation/variable 9, 82,
90–2, 172–83, 218

[?] variant see Madani dialect 9,
82–3, 90, 92, 174, 177–8, 218

[g] variant see Fallahi/Badawi
dialects 9, 82, 90, 172, 174,
178–80, 218

[k] v ariant see Fallahi dialect 9, 82,
90, 178–9, 218

[q] variant 9, 82, 90, 92, 172,
177–83, 218

Quran 3, 35–7, 44, 48, 53, 79, 80,
90, 110

refugee camps 3–4, 8, 69, 76, 85–6,
88

refugees 3–4, 6–8, 15–16, 68, 71–2,
220

religion 11, 36, 44, 51, 82, 87,
108–9, 180, 192, 217

repetition 118, 123–4, 130, 136,
140–54, 164, 182–3, 206, 215–16,
219

resistance 60, 70, 74, 173, 224
rhyme 32, 57, 111, 140, 169, 185,

196, 200–1, 204–7

Shah, M. 34, 80
Shlaim, A. 8, 14, 67
Slyomovics, S. 4, 50, 71, 73, 222

Page 269

256 Index

sociolinguistic variables 5, 9, 12,
81–7, 118, 227

Somali poetry 24–5
speech 54, 61, 63, 79
speech accommodation theory 175–6

speech convergence 175
speech divergence 175
speech maintenance 175

speech acts 22
spoken word 19, 22, 40–1, 111
Standard Arabic see Arabic, Standard

(SA)
stereotypes 20, 29, 32
storytelling 1, 20–2, 34, 41, 44, 47,

195
Suleiman, Y. 9, 15–16, 19, 28, 38,

73, 76, 82–3, 172–3

translation 7, 25

verbal art 18, 25, 27, 40
Versteegh, K. 3, 21, 79–80, 88, 172

women 3, 10, 12, 46, 48, 58–60,
74, 82, 171–6, 187, 189, 219,
221–6

code-switching 171–4, 219, 221
prestige consciousness 82, 84–5,

171–4
word order 9, 105–7, 119, 150,

165
writing 2, 18, 20, 23, 26, 28, 30–1,

34, 41, 47, 58, 65

Zionism 16

Similer Documents