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TagsAnatomical Terms Of Motion Human Leg Foot Pelvis
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Total Pages47
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Page 2


It seems more and more of today's individuals are working harder to become stronger and
healthier. These individuals are constantly working to improve their activities by increasing their
flexibility, strength, endurance, and power. A tremendous amount of athletes and individuals
are performing high-level activities even though they are inefficient in their fundamental
movements; without knowing it, these individuals are putting fitness on dysfunction. These
individuals create poor movement patterns, train around a pre-existing problem or simply do not
train their weakness during their strength and conditioning programs. In today’s evolving
training and conditioning market, athletes and individuals have access to a huge arsenal of
equipment and workout programs; however, the best equipment and programs cannot produce
if the fundamental weaknesses are not exposed. The idea is to individualize each workout
program based on the person’s weak link. This weak link is a physical or functional limitation.
In order to isolate the weak link, the body’s fundamental movement patterns should be
considered. Most people will not begin strength and conditioning or rehabilitative programs by
determining if they have adequate movement patterns. This makes it essential to screen an
individual’s fundamental movements prior to beginning a rehabilitative or strength and
conditioning program. By looking at the movement patterns and not just one area, a weak link
can be identified. This will enable the individual, strength and conditioning coach, athletic
trainer or fitness professional to focus on that area. If this weak link is not identified, the body
will compensate, causing inefficient movements. It is this type of inefficiency that can cause a
decrease in performance and an increase in injuries. The Functional Movement Screen and
Corrective Exercise System attempts to pinpoint these weak links, and alleviate them. This
system is a process that identifies the weak link in the movement pattern and then assigns
exercises to correct it. When this is accomplished, the individual or athlete will have greater
movement efficiency, which will lead to improved performance and hopefully a decrease in
injury potential. This system consists of The Functional Movement Screen, Core Training and
Reactive Neuromuscular Training.

The intended purpose of movement screening:

1. Identify individuals at risk, who are attempting to maintain or increase activity level.
2. Assist in program design by systematically using corrective exercise to normalize or

improve fundamental movement patterns.
3. Provide a systematic tool to monitor progress and movement pattern development in the

presence of changing fitness levels.
4. Create a functional movement baseline which will allow rating and ranking movement for

statistical observation.

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The inline lunge pattern is a component of de-
celeration movements and direction changes pro-
duced in exercise, activity and sport. Although the
inline lunge explores more movement and control
than many activities require, it provides a quick
appraisal of left and right functions in the basic
pattern. It is intended to place the body in a posi-
tion to focus on the stresses as simulated during
rotation, deceleration and lateral movements. The
narrow base requires appropriate starting stability
and continued dynamic control of the pelvis and
core within an asymmetrical hip position equally
sharing the load.

The inline lunge places the lower extremities in
a split- stance position while the upper extremities
are in an opposite or reciprocal pattern. This rep-
licates the natural counterbalance the upper and
lower extremities use to complement each other, as
it uniquely demands spine stabilization. This test
also challenges hip, knee, ankle and foot mobility
and stability, at the same time simultaneously chal-
lenging the flexibility of multi- articular muscles
such as the latissimus dorsi and the rectus femoris.

True lunging requires a step and descent. The
inline lunge test only provides observation of the
descent and return; the step would present too
many variables and inconsistencies for a simple
movement screen. The split- stance narrow base
and opposite- shoulder position provide enough
opportunities to discover the mobility and stability
problems of the lunging pattern.


Attain the client’s tibia length by either measur-
ing it from the floor to the top center of the tibial
tuberosity, or acquiring it from the height of the
cord during the hurdle step test. Tell the client to
place the toe of the back foot at the start line on the
kit. Using the tibia measurement, have the client
put the heel of the front foot at the appropriate
mark on the kit. In most cases, it’s easier to establish
proper foot position before introducing the dowel.

Place the dowel behind the back, touching the
head, thoracic spine and sacrum. The client’s hand
opposite the front foot should be the hand grasp-

ing the dowel at the cervical spine. The other hand
grasps the dowel at the lumbar spine. The dowel
must maintain its vertical position throughout
both the downward and upward movements of the
lunge test.

To perform the inline lunge pattern, the client
lowers the back knee to touch the board behind the
heel of the front foot and returns to the starting

If any of the criteria for a score of three are not
achieved, the client receives a score of two. If any
of the criteria for the score of two are not achieved,
the client receives a score of one.


1. The front leg identifies the side you’re
scoring— this simply represents the pattern
and does not imply the functional ability of a
body part or side.

2. Always remember you are screening patterns,
not parts.

3. The dowel remains vertical and in contact
with the head, thoracic spine and sacrum
during the movement.

4. The front heel remains in contact with the
board, and the back heel touches the board
when returning to the starting position.

5. Watch for loss of balance.
6. Remain close to the client to prevent a com-

plete loss of balance.
7. Do not judge the pattern or interpret the

cause of the score while testing.
8. Do not coach the movement; simply repeat

the instructions if needed.
9. Was there pain?
10. When in doubt, score low.


• Ankle, knee and hip mobility may be inad-
equate for either the front or the rear leg.

• Dynamic stability may not be adequate to
complete the pattern.

• There may also be limitations in the thoracic
spine region, inhibiting the client from per-
forming the test well.

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Dowel contacts maintained | Dowel remains vertical | No torso movement noted
Dowel and feet remain in sagittal plane | Knee touches board behind heel of front foot


Dowel contacts not maintained | Dowel does not remain vertical | Movement noted in torso
Dowel and feet do not remain in sagittal plane | Knee does not touch behind heel of front foot


Loss of balance is noted

The athlete receives a score of zero if pain is associated with any portion of this test.
A medical professional should perform a thorough evaluation of the painful area.

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Active Straight- Leg Raise

Equipment needed: Dowel, measuring device, 2x6


• Lay flat with the back of your knees against the 2x6 with your toes pointing up.

• Place both arms next to your body with the palms facing up.

• Pull the toes of your right foot toward your shin.

• With the right leg remaining straight and the back of your left knee maintaining contact
with the 2x6, raise your right foot as high as possible.

• Do you understand these instructions?

Score the movement.
Repeat the test on the other side.

Trunk Stability Pushup

Equipment needed: None


• Lie face down with your arms extended overhead and your hands shoulder width apart.

• Pull your thumbs down in line with the ___ (forehead for men, chin for women).

• With your legs together, pull your toes toward the shins and lift your knees and elbows off
the ground.

• While maintaining a rigid torso, push your body as one unit into a pushup position.

• Do you understand these instructions?

Score the movement.
Repeat two times if necessary.
Repeat the instructions with appropriate hand placement if necessary.

Spinal Extension Clearing


• While lying on your stomach, place your hands, palms down, under your shoulders.

• With no lower body movement, press your chest off the surface as much as possible by
straightening your elbows.

• Do you understand these instructions?

• Do you feel any pain?

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Rotary Stability

Equipment needed: 2 x 6


• Get on your hands and knees over the 2x6 so your hands are under your shoulders and your
knees are under your hips.

• The thumbs, knees and toes must contact the sides of the 2x6, and the toes must be pulled
toward the shins.

• At the same time, reach your right hand forward and right leg backward, like you are flying.

• Then without touching down, touch your right elbow to your right knee directly over the 2x6.

• Return to the extended position.

• Return to the start position.

• Do you understand these instructions?

Score the movement.
Repeat the test on the other side.
If necessary, instruct the client to use a diagonal pattern of right arm and le� leg. 
Repeat the diagonal pattern with le� arm and right leg.
Score the movement.

Spinal Flexion Clearing


• Get on all fours, and rock your hips toward your heels.

• Lower your chest to your knees, and reach your hands in front of your body as far as possible.

• Do you understand these instructions?

• Do you feel any pain?

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