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TitleFive Quarts: A Personal and Natural History of Blood
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Total Pages223
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight
Chapter Nine
Chapter Ten
Chapter Eleven
Chapter Twelve
Chapter Thirteen
Illustration Credits
About the Author
Also by Bill Hayes
Copyright Page
Document Text Contents
Page 112

Behring found that if he removed the serum (the plasma without the blood cells
and clotting elements) from an animal that had been successfully immunized
against diphtheria, and then injected it into a second animal, that animal would
also be immune. Serum from the injected animal would, in turn, protect other
animals. Taking the next step, however—creating a diphtheria antitoxin to
protect human beings—had proved troublesome. Behring wisely enlisted
Ehrlich’s help in developing a safe, effective protocol. Ultimately, full-scale
production of the lifesaving diphtheria treatment began in November 1894.

Paul Ehrlich in his laboratory

From there, a five-year jump in time finds a world-recognized Paul Ehrlich as
the head of his own institute, the newly established Royal Institute of
Experimental Therapy, located in Frankfurt—a long distance, both
geographically and professionally, from his cramped quarters in Berlin. The
institute had been designed to Ehrlich’s every specification, with multiple
laboratories, a library, and ample space for a top-notch staff plus countless lab
animals, all housed within a grand four-story building. Ehrlich oversaw a broad
range of work whose scope was comparable, for its time, to, say, the United
States’ National Institutes of Health combined with the Food and Drug
Administration. While its opening ceremony in early November 1899 was a
splendid public affair, attended by scientists, journalists, politicians, and
citizenry, for Dr. Ehrlich personally a much more prestigious, albeit quieter,
event would take place four months later.

It is March 22, 1900, and the forty-six-year-old Paul Ehrlich stands before the
Royal Society of London—the exclusive scientific association that counts
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and Sir Isaac Newton among its past members. When
he speaks of the great privilege it is to be here, this is no mere nicety. He has

Page 222


Page 223

Author’s note: Some names have been changed in the memoir sections of this book.

A Ballantine Book

Published by The Random House Publishing Group Copyright © 2005 by William Hayes All rights
reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by
Ballantine Books, an imprint of The Random House Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc.,

New York.

Ballantine and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc.

Grateful acknowledgment is made to Warner Bros. Publications U.S., Inc., for permission to reprint “Blood
Makes Noise” by Suzanne Vega, copyright © 1992 WB Music Corp. and Waifersongs Ltd. All rights on
behalf of Itself and Waifersongs Ltd. Administered by WB Music Corp. All rights reserved. Reprinted by

permission of Warner Bros. Publications U.S., Inc., Miami, Florida 33014.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hayes, Bill.

Five quarts: a personal and natural history of blood / Bill Hayes.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

1. Blood 2. Medicine—History. I. Title.

QP91.H454 2004

612.1′1—dc22 2004050171

eISBN: 978-0-34548215-0

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