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TitleFischer, Henry G. “NBTY in Old-Kingdom Titles and Names.
TagsAncient Africa Ancient Egypt African Civilizations Egypt Archaeology
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Page 1

THE JOURNAL OF

Egyptian
Archaeology

VOLUME 6 0

1 9 7 4

PUBLISHED BY

Page 2

THE JOURNAL OF

Egyptian Archaeology

VOLUME 60

PUBLISHED BY

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION SOCIETY
3 D O U G H T Y MEWS, LONDON, W C i N 2 P G

1974

Page 3

CONTENTS
PAGE

EDITORIAL FOREWORD . . . . . . 1
RAYMOND 0. FAULKNER: AN APPRECIATION H. S. Smith 5
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RAYMOND OLIVER FAULKNER C. H. S. Spaull

00

EXCAVATIONS IN THE SACRED ANIMAL NECROPOLIS AT
NORTH SAQQARA, 1 9 7 2 - 3 : PRELIMINARY REPORT Geoffrey T . Martin 15

THE PODIUM SITE AT QASR IBRIM . . . . W. H. C. Frend . 3 °
THE PITS OF FUST AT : PROBLEMS OF CHRONOLOGY . George T. Scanlon . 60
A N EARLY AMETHYST VASE . . . . . Joan Crowfoot Payne 79
A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE TRIADS OF KING MYCERINUS Wendy Wood 82
NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES Henry G. Fischer . 94
POLYGAMY IN EGYPT IN THE MIDDLE KINGDOM ? . William Kelly Simpson . 100
A CONTEMPORARY OF KING SEWAH-EN-RE< . Oleg Berlev . . . . 106
A N INSCRIBED AXE BELONGING TO THE ASHMOLEAN

Oleg Berlev . . . .

W. V . Davies 1 1 4
TUTHMOSIS I AND THE B l B A N E L - M O L U K : SOME PROB­

1 1 4

LEMS OF ATTRIBUTION . . . . . . John Romer 1 1 9
U N SCARABEE INEDIT D'HATSHEPSOUT Robert Hari . . . . J 3 4
A COMMEMORATIVE SCARAB OF AMENOPHIS I I I William Kelly Simpson . 140
THE DEDICATORY AND BUILDING TEXTS OF RAMESSES I I IN

William Kelly Simpson . 140

LUXOR TEMPLE : I : THE TEXTS . . . . Mahmud Abd El-Razik . 142
T w o MONUMENTS OF THE TIAS . . . . . Jaromir Malek 161
NAKHT-THUTY—SERVITOR OF SACRED BARQUES AND

GOLDEN PORTALS K. A. Kitchen 168
THE CHRYSAPHA RELIEF AND ITS CONNECTIONS WITH

EGYPTIAN ART Eleanor Guralnick . !75
FRAGMENT OF A TEMPLE ACCOUNT ROLL E. A. E. Reymond . 189
SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY OF PHARAONIC

EGYPT . . . . . . . . Nial Charlton 200
A TEXT OF THE BENEDICITE IN GREEK AND OLD NUBIAN

FROM KASR EL-W IZZ John Barns . . . . 206
QASR IBR!M, 1972 . . . . . . . J Martin Plumley and W. Y.

Adams . . . . 212
A COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF'S ORDER FROM SAQQARA . E . G. Turner 239
JOHN WINTOUR BALDWIN BARNS . . . . . W. V . Davies 243
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS : The ideographic use of ^ in a group of Old-Kingdom names, by Henry

G. Fischer, p. 247; A tm- n-fsdm sentence? by Mordechai Gilula, p. 249; Was there a coregency
of Ahmose with Amenophis I ? by Giinther Vittmann, p. 250; The collapse of the Meidum pyra­
mid, by I . E. S. Edwards, p. 2 5 1 ; A further re-appraisal of the terms: Nhh and Dt, by Abd-el-
Mohsen Bakir, p. 252; Pharaoh Nechepso, by J. D . Ray, p. 255 ; The archives of the Sacred
Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara. A progress report, by H. S. Smith, p. 256; An additional
note on 'Cylindrical Amulet Cases', by J. M. Ogden, p. 258; A Note on P. Lond. 854, by T . C.
Skeat, p. 259; Current research for higher degrees in Egyptology, Coptic, and related studies in
the United Kingdom, by Geoffrey T. Martin and W. V. Davies, p. 261.

Page 4

vi C O N T E N T S

REVIEWS PAGE

W . HELCK and E. OTTO, ed., Lexikon der Ägyptologie . Reviewed by Kate Bosse-
Griffiths . . . . 2 6 4

B. SPULER, ed. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Ägyptologie.
Literatur . . . . . . . E. P. Uphill . . 2 6 5

S. R. K. GLANVILLE, rev. R. O. FAULKNER, Catalogue of
Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum. II.
Wooden Model Boats E. P. Uphill . . . 2 6 6

JULIA SAMSON, Amarna, City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti:
Key Pieces from the Petrie Collection . . . Geoffrey T. Martin . . 2 6 7

J. M. SALEH, Les Antiquités égyptiennes de Zagreb . Geoffrey T. Martin . . 2 6 9
I. E. S. EDWARDS et al. ed. The Cambridge Ancient

History. Vol. II, Part I Geoffrey T. Martin . . 2 6 9
S. WENIG, The Woman in Egyptian Art . . . Mostafa El-Alfi . . . 2 7 0
G. BJÖRKMAN, Kings at Karnak . . . . John Baines . . . . 2 7 0
H . A. GROENEWEGEN-FRANKFORT, Arrest and Movement John Baines . . . . 2 7 2
E . EDEL, Die Felsengräber der Qubbet el Hawa bei

Assuan. II . . . . . . . . C . H . S. Spaull . . 2 7 6
H . J. POLOTSKY, Collected Papers . . . . C . H . S. Spaull . . . 2 7 6
K. ZiBELius, Afrikanische Orts- und Völkernamen in

hieroglyphischen und hieratischen Texten . C . H . S. Spaull . . . 2 7 7
C . T . HODGE, ed. Afroasiatic. A Survey . . . C . H . S. Spaull . . . 2 7 8
K. A. KITCHEN, Ramesside Inscriptions, Historical and

Biographical . . . . . . . C . H . S. Spaull . . . 2 7 9
F . FILCE LEEK, The Human Remains from the Tomb of

Tutrankhamün . • . . . . . David M. Dixon . . . 2 8 0
W . K. SIMPSON, ed. The Literature of Ancient Egypt . J. Gwyn Griffiths . . . 2 8 0
M. I. MouRSi , Die Hohenpriester des Sonnengottes von der

Frühzeit Ägyptens bis zum Ende des Neuen Reiches . J. Gwyn Griffiths . . . 2 8 1
S. MORENZ, tr. A. E. KEEP, Egyptian Religion . . J. Gwyn Griffiths . . . 2 8 1
C . J. BLEEKER, Hathor and Thoth . . . . J. Gwyn Griffiths . . . 2 8 2
PH. DERCHAIN, Hathor Quadrifrons . . . . J. Gwyn Griffiths . . . 2 8 2
V. F . VANDERLIP, The Four Greek Hymns of Isidorus and

the Cult of Isis . . . . . . . J. Gwyn Griffiths . . . 2 8 4
A. R. DAVID, Religious Ritual at Abydos, c. 1300 B.C.. Alan B. Lloyd . . . 2 8 5
ANNE BURTON, Didorus Siculus Book I. A Commentary Alan B. Lloyd . . . 2 8 7
P. M. FRASER, Ptolemaic Alexandria . . . E. G. Turner . . . 2 9 0
E. M. HUSSELMAN, ed., Papyri from Karanis . . J. R. Rea . . . . 2 9 2
J. C . SHELTON, Papyri from the Michigan Collection . J. R. Rea . . . . 2 9 4
R. H . PIERCE, Three Demotic Papyri in the Brooklyn

Museum . . . . . . . . W . J. Tait . . . . 2 9 7
A. K. BOWMAN, The Town Councils of Roman Egypt J. David Thomas . . . 2 9 8
Other Books Received . . . . . . C . H . S. Spaull . . . 3 0 1

Page 5

(94)

NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES
By HENRY G. FISCHER

ONE of the recurrent elements in the titularies of Old-Kingdom queens shows the
following variations:

De Rouge, Inscriptions, I, pi. 62.I

Borchardt, Grabd. Kgs. Ne-user-re*, 109, fig. 88.

Sarcophagus, Cairo J. 54935 (Mr.s-^nh III).

Tomb chapel of Mr.s-^nh III.2

False door of Queen Nbt (fig. 1).3

Statue, Boston MFA 30.1456 (Htfi-hr.s II).4

\ \ Tomb chapel of Mr.s-Cnh III.5

Mariette, Mastabas, 183.

^ Mariette, Mastabas, 225.

Jequier, Pyrs. des reines, pi. 16.

False door of Queen Nbt (fig. 1).
1 Similar examples of graphic metathesis are presented in the following tabulation which shows the feminine

^ centred below a pair of signs; some cases also involve the graphic transposition of a tall narrow sign (d-f)
or honorific transposition (g), and the feminine ^ may belong to the first of the two signs above it (as in the
present case, and a-c, e-g) or to the second sign (d, h).

The references are as follows: a-b: Sethe, Die altdgyptischen Pyramidentexte, iv, p. 23; c: Hassan, Giza, 11,
163, fig. 193; d: Reisner, Hist Giza Necrop. 1, pl. 65 (b) and CG 1414 (for the normal writing of i;wt{i) nfr,
see Hassan, Giza, 111, 196, fig. 158; vi, pt. 3, 64, fig. 46; CG 1506); e: Hassan, Giza, iv, 193, fig. 141; f:
Murray, Saq. Mast. 1, pi. 20; g: Hassan, Giza, in, 32, fig. 31; iv, 131, fig. 74 and 140, fig. 81; Reisner, Hist.
Giza Necrop. 1, pi. 57 (b); h: Hassan, Giza, 11, 109, fig. 116 and i n , fig. 118.

2 On the north wall of room C (loc. 25); for this information I am indebted to Dows Dunham and Wm. K.
Simpson, who are preparing a final publication of the tomb.

3 Presumably the wife of King Wenis, near whose pyramid her mastaba is located; cf. Zaki Saad, ASAE 40
(1941), 683-4, where the title under consideration is not mentioned; my copy (not a facsimile) derives from a
photograph taken by Bernard V. Bothmer in 1958, and I am obliged to him for the use of it.

4 BMFA 34 (1936), 5-
5 Reisner, BMFA 25 (1927), fig. 5, p. 67; another example, on the west wall of the same principal room, is

almost identical, only lacking <=> (Illus. London News, July 9, 1927, p. 69 [3]).

Page 6

FIG. I . False Door of Queen Nebet.

Page 7

96 HENRY G. FISCHER

In his article 'La titulature des reines des dynasties memphites', ASAE 24 (1924),
207-8, Gauthier, like Erman and Naville before him, takes \ \ \ to mean 'beloved', and
this translation is certainly applicable to the later examples which they quote, dating to
the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties:

Nofret, queen of Sesostris I I : CG 382.

Hatshepsut: Naville, Deir el Bahari, 11, pi. 48.6

The feminine ending of mryt does not appear in any of the Old-Kingdom examples
however, and this omission is the more remarkable because the feminine t generally
does appear in {̂ (var. |J|>, 3 1 ^ ) - ^ ^ reading were mryt, the absence of the
feminine ending would seem particularly remarkable in the majority of cases where
the passive participle is written in full as ^ (J (] or ^ (] (j P Moreover, one would expect
this adjunct, if it originally had such a meaning, to take the form ^ , as it does in
Mr.sink's titulary, following the titles ^5 a n ^ l^PflT-8 ^ n exceptional example of
sm?(wt) Nbty mrt-f (F) does in fact occur at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, on the false
door of Queen Nbt, whereas the opposite side of the same monument shows the normal
form smt(wt) mry Nbty (fig. 1); the most probable explanation is that, on the left side,
this title has been assimilated to the following one, hmt-nswt mrt-f. If tnrt-f were a
legitimate variant of \ (j (j, and identical in meaning to the latter, one might conversely
expect \f)(] to appear as a variant in some writings of the titles that normally show mrt-f.
The Middle-Kingdom example of \ (] (J <=> probably represents a reinterpretation of the
older form, which permitted the replacement of Nbty by the king's name in the Middle
Kingdom and the similar replacement of Nbty by Hr in the Eighteenth Dynasty,
along with the addition of the suffix pronoun to mryt.

The variable sequence of words also raises some objections to Gauthier's interpre-
tation. It does not seem likely that variant D ends with the epithet \ (j 1}̂ J^ 'aimee du
roi', as he assumes, without the usual honorific transposition; nor does his interpreta-
tion of \ (j f\ fit variant E, in which one would expect smtwt mryt rather than mryt smtwt.
The one solution that most comfortably suits all the Old-Kingdom writings is to take
\ (j () as a masculine participle referring to the king, in which case the translation
is 'consort (lit. she who joins) him who is beloved of the Two Ladies' (or less probably)
'consort of the beloved (masc.) Two Ladies'. In the case of variant D one must then
append '(scilicet) the king'.9 The variations in the sequence of smiwt mry Nbty may be
summarized as follows, with honorific transposition indicated by parentheses and
brackets:

A. (Nbty) smtwt mry
B. smtwt Nbty

6 Also to be found in Sethe, Urk. iv, 225, 2; and cf. 216, 11.
7 As, for example, in 2 ^ \ * I) ( j^> Junker, Giza, iv, 42, fig. 11.
8 E.g. Reisner, loc. cit. and (with smrt Hr), pp. 76-7, figs. 17-18.
9 For this addition cf. the epithet of a Fourth-Dynasty prince: imfh hr it-f nswt, 'revered with his father, the

king' (Hassan, Giza, iv, 119, fig. 64).

Page 8

NBTY IN OLD-KINGDOM TITLES AND NAMES 97

C. smtwt (Nbty) mry
D. same+wsfltf
E. (Nbty [mry]) smtwt

The omission of mry in one example (B) is probably not to be regarded as an error,
but rather as an admissible variation in which Nbty is the equivalent of mry Nbty,
representing the king himself.10 Another queenly title, wrt hts occasionally shows
variations with the addition of Nbwy or Nbty:

entrance of chapel of Mr.s-<nh11

west wall, main chamber, of same12

Hassan, Giza, 111, 185, fig. 147, and pi. 55.13

Although the precise meaning 01 hts remains uncertain, it seems likely that a reterence
to the king is again to be recognized in these cases.14

The interpretation that has been proposed for the Old-Kingdom examples of mry
Nbty is borne out by some Middle-Kingdom evidence that is somewhat earlier than
the Middle-Kingdom titles quoted earlier. The name of the shrine of Sesostris I at
Karnak sometimes appears in the form ^ j ^ ^ ^ H 'Seat (wtst) of Horus, the son of
the two crowns'15 and sometimes ^ ^ 4 ^ \ \ \ J QQ 'Seat of Horus, beloved of the two
crowns'.16

Irrespective of the foregoing considerations, it is clear that Nbwy and Nbty some-
times literally refer to the 'Two Lords' and 'Two Ladies' who represent an entity
that is independent of the king (notably in Pyr. 34), while at other times this desig-
nation represents the king himself. Particularly in the case of Nbty, it might be

10 Cf. the group T , which occurs frequently in archaic inscriptions. Kaplony (Inschriften der dg Friihzeit,

612-14) lists the occurrences and concludes, following Helck, that this represents a personal name; on p. 438
he compares other names compounded with nbwy (rather than nbty).

11 GrdselofT, ASAE 42 (1943), 112, finds a parallel for this in Emery, Hemaka, 35 and pi. 18 a ( ^ | ^Z7^ZP)
and takes wrt hts to mean 'la grande des princesses (nubiles)* (pp. 114-15). Wrjwrt may indeed mean 'the
greatest of (a group of persons)', but since fits' may represent a quality ('perfection* ?), the first word might
also be translated 'great in respect to' (cf. n. 14 below). GrdselofFs further interpretation of wrt hts as 'edu-
catrice' (p. 118) is difficult to follow despite his ingenious interpretation of (1 as the determinative of ts-mdh
in Pyr. 12146 (p. 120; cf. Staehelin, Untersuchungen zur dg. Tracht 27, n. 3).

12 Two examples, loc. 12 and 13; the writing § H occurs in the vertical inscriptions of this chapel, while
the more usual writing {1S *̂ occurs in the horizontal ones.

13 Although this example is not intact, it does not seem to be J ^ ; furthermore wrt hts occurs repeatedly
in the inscriptions of the same person, while smfwt nbty is absent.

14 One might also compare two examples which append the name of a specific king: ^*IJ ( p | < = > ^ J»

-^$" IT ( ° ^ * " " ^ 0 ff*e R°ug^> Inscriptions, 1, pi. 62). It should be noted, however, that another of Mr.

s-fnh's titles shows a variant that appends the name of the god Thoth: \ ^ % > ? ^ (followed by ^ P \ \ £ j

wrt-hst Dhwty lit. 'great-of-praise(s) of Thoth* or possibly 'greatest of those whom Thoth praises'. This

occurs above the entrance (BMFA 25 [1927], 77, fig. 18).
15 Lacau and Chevrier, Une Chapelle de Sesostris Ier, pis. 10-11.
16 Op. cit. pis. 18, 34; cf. Kees, MDAIK 16 (1958), 194-5.
1038C73 H

Page 9

98 HENRY G. FISCHER

considered whether a nisbe-form is involved, the writing of which would be
indistinguishable from the feminine dual on which it is based.17

In the case of Old-Kingdom feminine names which are compounded with Nbtyy the
use of this term is ambiguous. If it refers to the female divinities as such, it also alludes
to the relationship between these divinities and the king; if it refers to the king, this
mode of reference is certainly adopted because it involves a pair of divinities that are
female. Probably the second interpretation is more appropriate as a rule,18 but the
first is attested by at least two examples, both of which refer to Nbty as an entity other
than the king. One is M ^ \ ^ > which Ranke translates: 'es glanzt der, den nb-tj
(d.i. der Konig) liebt' (PN I, 264 [10]). Since mrr is masculine, 'he whom the Two
Ladies love' must refer to the king or an unidentified god, either of which might
appropriately be the subject of hci. In neither case can Nbty represent the king, and in
this particular context the first alternative is much more likely; indeed, the relative form
mrr Nbty might be compared with the participial mry Nbty in the title mentioned earlier.

The second name, M®*LP (PN *> 423 t23])> evidently means 'The Two Ladies
are upon her father', and nbty must then allude to the double crown of Upper and
Lower Egypt, as in ^^F^*—*fL ' ^ s c r o w n *s upon him' (Pyr. 20186, 20196, and cf.
7536, 2196a).19 According to the Worterbuch, Nbty is not otherwise known to refer to the
double crown prior to the New Kingdom.20 It seems more than coincidental, however,
that two Fifth-Dynasty 'keepers of the headdress' (try nfr-fot) are, at the same time,
'priest of Nekhebet, priest of Wedjoyet'. In one example the three titles are presented
in series, ending with another closely related title—'director of hairdressers' (fig. 2).21

The double priesthood evidently has much the same meaning as the Twelfth-Dynasty
title 1 i^ i ^ *H? > 'p r ie s t of the white and red crown of Upper and Lower Egypt'
(Firth-Gunn, Teti Pyr. Gem., pi. 82).22

Nfr-htt recalls a term for the crown, nfr-hdt, as attested in a title of princesses and
queens dating from the Twelfth Dynasty down to the first half of the Eighteenth:

17 This question is also raised by the occurrence of ^ £ among the epithets of the Twelfth-Dynasty official
Wh-htp (Blackman and Apted, Meir, vi, pi. 13); this has been translated T w o Ladies, or He of the Two Ladies'
(ibid. 9, 26).

18 For the numerous cases in which Nbty may refer to the king, see Ranke, PN 1, 180 (12, 21), 189 (25, 26),
190 (1, 2), 259 (1), 423 (22), 425 (30); II, 297 (24), 302 (24) and ^ g ^ ^ Brooklyn 64. 148. 2.

19 The white crown alone is mentioned in the Old-Kingdom personal name | ^ , ^ | ^ (PN 1, 257 [4],
Hassan, Giza; iv, 117); this is paralleled by the name ^ £ $ ^ Q * (PN 1, 190 [1]), but that does not mean, of
course, that Nbty necessarily refers to the two crowns in the latter case.

20 Wb. 11, 233, 9-10; cf. Faulkner, Concise Diet. 129 and quotations given by Naville, ZAS 36 (1898), 134.
Middle-Kingdom texts sometimes use Widty (det. ^ ^ CG 20518, 20683; Firth-Gunn, Teti Pyr. Cent. 281;
Blackman, Meir, in, 2; £ & BM 839, Hieroglyphic Texts, 11, pi. 7); cf. \<*£$2 4 1 + * 4 J ® < t h e

white crown serpent (hdt-wtt) which is in El Kab' (Pyr. goob); also the title § p — J <=* which Gunn trans-
lates 'Carrier of the raw-diadem (?) of Uto' (Firth-Gunn, Teti Pyr. Cent. 134); this recurs (as ffloP alone)
in the Middle Kingdom (Weill, Rev. d'£g. 7 [1950], 185-6); and the nws-diadem is also mentioned in
Jequier, Pyrs. des Reinesy pi. 8 (Neit, 43) and CT VI, zoSd.

21 From Hassan, Giza, n, 85, fig. 89; the other titles are held by Rc-zvr: op. cit. 1, 23, fig. 16, and pp. 6,
16, 29.

22 This point favours the interpretation of y lJT* as 'support of the red (crown)' on the false door of a 'keeper
of the royal headdress' who is apparently somewhat later than Dyn. vi (ZAS 90 [1963], 39-40 and pi. 5).

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