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TitleFire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials
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LanguageEnglish
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Document Text Contents
Page 2

Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials

Page 199

Chapter 6 – Structural Properties of Composites in Fire 193

Figure 6.15. Fire test results under tensile load at a constant propane burner heat flux of 75 kW/m
2
on

glass/vinyl ester, glass/polyester and glass/polypropylene composites [41].

Figure 6.16. Restrained compression test. (a) Schematic of picture frame restraint jig and (b) propane

burner test on a polymer laminate under compression.

0

5 0

1 0 0

1 5 0

2 0 0

2 5 0

3 0 0

3 5 0

4 0 0

4 5 0

5 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

Tim e to fa ilure s e c onds

T
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n
s

il
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s
tr

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s

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M
P

a
Glass/vinyl ester

Glass/polyester

Glass/polypropylene

0

5 0

1 0 0

1 5 0

2 0 0

2 5 0

3 0 0

3 5 0

4 0 0

4 5 0

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1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

Tim e to fa ilure s e c onds

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M
P

a
Glass/vinyl ester

Glass/polyester

Glass/polypropylene

H
e
a
t

fl
u

x

Load

Load

Sample

Anti-

buckling

guides

(a) (b)

H
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Load

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buckling

guides

H
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Load

Sample

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buckling

guides

(a) (b)

Page 200

194 Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials

Figure 6.17. Fire test results under compressive load, at a constant propane burner heat flux of 75 kW/m
2
on

glass/vinyl ester, glass/polyester and glass/polypropylene composites [41].

Electrical radiant heat sources are a convenient and easily calibrated means of applying
a known heat flux. Mouritz et al. [44] employed the radiant element from a cone
calorimeter in the vertical configuration to heat vertical laminate specimens when under
constant load. The benefit of this test is that the heat flux is easily adjusted and easily
calibrated using the heat flux meter procedure normally employed in calibrating a cone
calorimeter. Results are shown in Figs. 6.18 & 6.19 for both tension and compression
covering a wide range of heat fluxes for woven glass/vinyl ester and woven
glass/phenolic laminates. The normalised stress is the static tensile/compressive stress
applied to the laminate when exposed to the heat flux divided by its tensile/compressive
strength at room temperature. The failure times increase with a reduction in the applied
stress and heat flux. The failure times of the phenolic laminate are the shortest, which is
interesting considering its lower flammability. The less favourable performance of the
phenolic laminate was attributed to heat-induced delamination and matrix cracking,
which is more extensive than for the vinyl ester laminate. The phenolic matrix can
contain a significant quantity of water, formed as the by-product of the cure reaction.
This vaporises during heating, generating a sufficiently high internal pressure to
produce delamination damage. Further water and other volatiles are produced as a
result of ongoing postcure and ultimately resin decomposition.

0

5 0

1 0 0

1 5 0

2 0 0

2 5 0

3 0 0

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C
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M

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Glass/vinyl ester

Glass/polyester

Glass/polypropylene

0

5 0

1 0 0

1 5 0

2 0 0

2 5 0

3 0 0

3 5 0

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1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

Tim e to fa ilure s e c onds

C
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M

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Glass/vinyl ester

Glass/polyester

Glass/polypropylene

Page 397

Subject Index 393

aircraft, 314, 316-318
automobiles, 316
infrastructure, 316
rail, 314, 315
ships & submarines, 314, 316-318

Repair of fire damage, 128

Room fire tests
HORDTEST/ISO room fire test,
351
Monsanto room calorimeter, 351
room calorimeter test, 73, 76, 351,
348
room corner test, 121, 350, 3516
quarter-scale room fire test, 350,
351

Sandwich composites
fire damage, 47, 48
ignition, 62, 63

post-fire properties, 231, 232

Ship/submarine fires, 14-17, 314,
316-318

Single-burning item test, 73, 348, 349

Smoke
composites, 84-88
definition, 5, 338
NBS smoke test, 343, 344
specific extinction area (SEA), 85
specific optical density, 343

Smoke toxicity
carbon fibres, 375-378
char, 375
composites, 88-90, 364-371
fibre fragments, 360, 372-374
glass fibres, 378, 379
halogenated polymers, 266
health effects, 359
irritants, 359, 379, 380
test methods, 360-364

organic fibres, 379

Specific heat, 156, 157
Structural modelling, 122-128
Temperature effect on composites

cross-ply laminate, 184, 185
off-axis laminate, 182-184
quasi-isotropic laminate, 185, 186
random fibre laminate, 185, 186
unidirectional laminate, 180, 182
woven laminate, 184, 185

Tension properties of composites
high temperature properties,
186-188
post-fire properties, 217, 218, 221,
224-228, 230-232
properties in fire, 191-197, 206

Thermal barrier coatings, 276-279

Thermal conductivity
composites, 153
fibres, 51
polymers, 51

Thermal contraction
see thermal expansion

Thermal decomposition mechanisms,
19-23

Thermal diffusivity, 134

Thermal expansion, 133-136, 146,
149-151, 156, 157, 201-203

Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA),
24

Thermal stability index (TSI), 79-81

Thermal strain, 132, 149, 150
Thermal volatilization analysis (TVA),

24

Page 398

394 Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials

Time-to-ignition
definition, 4
composites, 59-72, 116, 118
modeling, 69-72, 116-118

Toxicity test methods
animal exposure tests, 361
limitations, 363, 364
NBS cup furnace test, 361
NIBS toxic hazard test, 363
NIST radiant panel test, 361, 262
SwRI/NIST test, 361
University of Pittsburgh test, 361,
363, 367

Two-layer model, 204-206, 227-231

Upward flame propagation test, 342

University of Pittsburgh test, 361, 363,
367

Vinyl ester
composition, 33
decomposition, 33

Vinyl ester matrix composites
ESI, 80
ignition, 60-62, 65, 66, 72, 116
heat release rate, 73, 74, 119, 120
LOI, 91
mass loss, 81-84
post-fire mechanical properties,
216, 218, 219, 232, 233
smoke, 85, 86
smoke toxicity, 90

Vinyl ester nanocomposites, 304, 305

Volatiles
ignition, effect on, 60, 61, 64
pressure, 133, 135, 136, 146-150,
152, 157, 224
smoke, in, 85, 87

Wood
fire reaction, 136, 137

Zinc oxide flame retardant fillers, 253

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