Download Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials PDF

TitleFire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size3.9 MB
Total Pages413
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Introduction
Thermal Decomposition of Composites in Fire
Fire Reaction Properties of Composites
Fire Modelling of Composites
Modelling the Thermal Response of Composites in Fire
Structural Properties of Composites in Fire
Post-Fire Properties of Composites
Flame Retardant Composites
Fire Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
Fire Safety Regulations
Fire Tests for Composites
Health Hazards of Composites in Fire
Back Matter
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials

Page 206

194 Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials

Figure 6.17. Fire test results under compressive load, at a constant propane burner heat flux of 75 kW/m
2
on

glass/vinyl ester, glass/polyester and glass/polypropylene composites [41].

Electrical radiant heat sources are a convenient and easily calibrated means of applying
a known heat flux. Mouritz et al. [44] employed the radiant element from a cone
calorimeter in the vertical configuration to heat vertical laminate specimens when under
constant load. The benefit of this test is that the heat flux is easily adjusted and easily
calibrated using the heat flux meter procedure normally employed in calibrating a cone
calorimeter. Results are shown in Figs. 6.18 & 6.19 for both tension and compression
covering a wide range of heat fluxes for woven glass/vinyl ester and woven
glass/phenolic laminates. The normalised stress is the static tensile/compressive stress
applied to the laminate when exposed to the heat flux divided by its tensile/compressive
strength at room temperature. The failure times increase with a reduction in the applied
stress and heat flux. The failure times of the phenolic laminate are the shortest, which is
interesting considering its lower flammability. The less favourable performance of the
phenolic laminate was attributed to heat-induced delamination and matrix cracking,
which is more extensive than for the vinyl ester laminate. The phenolic matrix can
contain a significant quantity of water, formed as the by-product of the cure reaction.
This vaporises during heating, generating a sufficiently high internal pressure to
produce delamination damage. Further water and other volatiles are produced as a
result of ongoing postcure and ultimately resin decomposition.

0

5 0

1 0 0

1 5 0

2 0 0

2 5 0

3 0 0

3 5 0

4 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

Tim e to fa ilure s e c onds

C
o

m
p

re
s

s
iv

e
s

tr
e

s
s


M

P
a

Glass/vinyl ester

Glass/polyester

Glass/polypropylene

0

5 0

1 0 0

1 5 0

2 0 0

2 5 0

3 0 0

3 5 0

4 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

Tim e to fa ilure s e c onds

C
o

m
p

re
s

s
iv

e
s

tr
e

s
s


M

P
a

Glass/vinyl ester

Glass/polyester

Glass/polypropylene

Page 207

Chapter 6 – Structural Properties of Composites in Fire 195

1 10 100 1000 10000
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

glass/vinyl ester

50 kW/m
2

25 kW/m
2

75 kW/m
2

N
o

rm
a

li
s
e

d
T

e
n

s
il
e

S
tr

e
s
s

Time-to-Failure (s)

(a)

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1 10 100 1000 10000

glass/phenolic

25 kW/m
2

10 kW/m
2

50 kW/m
2

75 kW/m
2

Time-to-failure (s)

N
o

rm
a

li
s
e

d
T

e
n

s
il
e

S
tr

e
s
s

(b)

Figure 6.18. One-sided heat flux exposure results under tensile load at different heat fluxes on (a) glass/vinyl

ester and (b) woven glass/phenolic laminates using a radiant heat source.

Page 412

Mechanics
SOLID MECHANICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Series Editor: G.M.L. Glad ell

10 . P. Ståhle and .G. Sundin eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Field Analyses for Determination
of Material Parameters – Experimental and Numerical Aspects. Proceedings o the I AM
S m osium held in A isko ational Park, iruna, S eden, Jul 31 – August 4, 2000. 2003

ISB 1-4020-1283-7
110. . Sri amachchi a a and . . Lin eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Stochastic

Dynamics. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Monticello, IL, SA, 26 – 30
August, 2000. 2003 ISB 1-4020-1471-6

111. H. So ieck k ed. : IUTAM Symposium Transsonicum IV. Proceedings o the I AM S m-
osium held in Göttingen, German , 2–6 Se tem er 2002, 2003 ISB 1-4020-1608-

112. J.-C. Samin and P. isette: Symbolic Modeling of Multibody Systems. 2003
ISB 1-4020-162 -8

113. A.B. Mo chan ed. : IUTAM Symposium on Asymptotics, Singularities and Homogenisation
in Problems of Mechanics. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Li er ool, nited

ingdom, 8-11 Jul 2002. 2003 ISB 1-4020-1780-4
114. S. Ah i, M. Cherkaoui, M.A. haleel, H.M. Z i , M.A. Zikr and B. LaMatina eds. : IUTAM

Symposium on Multiscale Modeling and Characterization of Elastic-Inelastic Behavior of
Engineering Materials. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Marrakech, Morocco,
20-2 cto er 2002. 2004 ISB 1-4020-1861-4

11 . H. itaga a and . Shi utani eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Mesoscopic Dynamics of Fracture
Process and Materials Strength. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in saka, Ja an,
6-11 Jul 2003. olume in cele ration o Pro essor itaga a’s retirement. 2004

ISB 1-4020-2037-6
116. E.H. o ell, R.L. Clark, . Co , H.C. Curtiss, Jr., .C. Hall, .A. Peters, R.H. Scanlan, E.

Simiu, . Sisto and . ang: A Modern Course in Aeroelasticity. 4th Edition, 2004
ISB 1-4020-203 -2

117. . Burc ński and A. s c ka eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Evolutionary Methods in Mechan-
ics. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Craco , Poland, 24-27 Se tem er 2002.
2004 ISB 1-4020-2266-2

118. . Ieşan: Thermoelastic Models of Continua. 2004 ISB 1-4020-230 -
11 . G.M.L. Glad ell: Inverse Problems in Vibration. Second Edition. 2004 ISB 1-4020-2670-6
120. J.R. inson: Plate and Panel Structures of Isotropic, Composite and Piezoelectric Materials,

Including Sandwich Construction. 200 ISB 1-4020-3110-6
121. Forthcoming
122. G. Rega and . estroni eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Chaotic Dynamics and Control of

Systems and Processes in Mechanics. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Rome,
Ital , 8–13 June 2003. 200 ISB 1-4020-3267-6

123. E.E. Gdoutos: Fracture Mechanics. An Introduction. 2nd edition. 200 ISB 1-4020-3267-6
124. M. . Gilchrist ed. : IUTAM Symposium on Impact Biomechanics from Fundamental Insights

to Applications. 200 ISB 1-4020-37 -3
12 . J.M. Hu ghe, P.A.C. Raats and S. C. Co in eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Physicochemical

and Electromechanical Interactions in Porous Media. 200 ISB 1-4020-3864-
126. H. ing, W. Chen and L. Zhang: Elasticity of Transversely Isotropic Materials. 200

ISB 1-4020-4033-4
127. W. ang ed : IUTAM Symposium on Mechanics and Reliability of Actuating Materials.

Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Bei ing, China, 1–3 Se tem er 2004. 200
ISB 1-4020-4131-6

Page 413

Mechanics
SOLID MECHANICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Series Editor: G.M.L. Glad ell

128. J.-P. Merlet: Parallel Robots. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4132-2
12 . G.E.A. Meier and .R. Sreeni asan eds. : IUTAM Symposium on One Hundred Years of

Boundary Layer Research. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held at LR-Göttingen,
German , August 12–14, 2004. 2006 ISB 1-4020-414 -7

130. H. l rich and W. Günthner eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Vibration Control of Nonlinear
Mechanisms and Structures. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4160-8

131. L. Li rescu and . Song: Thin-Walled Composite Beams. heor and A lication. 2006
ISB 1-4020-34 7-1

132. G. Ben- or, A. u insk and . El erin: Applied High-Speed Plate Penetration
Dynamics. 2006 ISB 1-4020-34 2-0

133. . Markensco and A. Gu ta eds. : Collected Works of J. D. Eshelby. Mechanics o e ects
and Inhomogeneities. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4416-

134. R.W. Snidle and H.P. E ans eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Elastohydrodynamics and Microelas-
tohydrodynamics. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Cardi , , 1–3 Se tem er,
2004. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4 32-8

13 . . Sado ski ed. : IUTAM Symposium on Multiscale Modelling of Damage and Fracture
Processes in Composite Materials. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in a imier

oln , Poland, 23–27 Ma 200 . 2006 ISB 1-4020-4 6 -4
136. A. Preumont: Mechatronics. namics o Electromechanical and Pie oelectric S stems. 2006

ISB 1-4020-46 -2
137. M.P. Bendsøe, . lho and . Sigmund eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Topological Design

Optimization of Structures, Machines and Materials. Status and Pers ecti es. 2006
ISB 1-4020-472 -0

138. A. lar ring: Models of Mechanics. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4834-3
13 . H. . Bui: Fracture Mechanics. In erse Pro lems and Solutions. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4836-
140. M. Pande , W.-C. ie and L. u eds. : Advances in Engineering Structures, Mechanics

and Construction. Proceedings o an International Con erence on Ad ances in Engineering
Structures, Mechanics Construction, held in Waterloo, ntario, Canada, Ma 14–17, 2006.
2006 ISB 1-4020-48 0-4

141. G. . Zhang, W. . an riel and . J. an: Mechanics of Microelectronics. 2006
ISB 1-4020-4 34-

142. .P. Sun and P. ong eds. : IUTAM Symposium on Size Effects on Material and Structural
Behavior at Micron- and Nano-Scales. Proceedings o the I AM S m osium held in Hong

ong, China, 31 Ma –4 June, 2004. 2006 ISB 1-4020-4 4 -
143. A.P. Mourit and A.G. Gi son: Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials. 2006

ISB 1-4020- 3 -

s ringer.com

Similer Documents