Download Financing of Inclusive Education: Background Information Report PDF

TitleFinancing of Inclusive Education: Background Information Report
File Size728.2 KB
Total Pages66
Table of Contents
                            List of Abbreviations
	Country literature
1. The Wider Policy Context for Inclusive Education
	1.1 Conceptions of inclusive education
	1.2 European and international debates on financing of inclusive education
	1.3 Consequences of the economic crisis for financing of inclusive education
		1.3.1 Educational priorities before and after the economic crisis
	1.4 Lack of quantitative data on the financing and cost of inclusive education
		1.4.1 Financing inclusive education: the issue of learner outcomes
	1.5 Chapter summary
2. Funding Mechanisms: Features and Consequences for Inclusive Education
	2.1 The complexity of education’s funding mechanisms
	2.2 Different funding models for effectively implementing inclusive education
	2.3 Funding models’ features and consequences for implementing inclusive education
		2.3.1 Input, output and throughput models
	2.4 Flexibility in funding systems for inclusive education
		2.4.1 Flexibility in decentralised funding systems
		2.4.2 The need for funding mechanisms to empower teachers to work flexibly
	2.5 Chapter summary
3. Multi-Level Governance to Support Effective Inclusive Policies
	3.1 School systems’ complexity and the support of governance mechanisms
	3.2 Effectiveness of financing of inclusive education
		3.2.1 Accountability and monitoring
		3.2.2 Transparency of the funding allocation process
	3.3 Chapter summary
4. Linking Resource Allocation with the Universal Right to Education
	4.1 Equity in financing: a way for implementing inclusive education
	4.2 Tackling inclusion and equity in education: the challenge for financing
	4.3 Chapter summary
5. Conclusion
Additional reading
Document Text Contents
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Financing of Inclusive Education

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Background Information Report 31

flexible combination of models – which take into account different variables, such
as awareness, commitment and traditions – would be desirable to allow effective
inclusive education to be implemented.

When analysing different funding levels and mechanisms, the most important
issue is the degree of flexibility that they grant to schools’ and teachers’ ways of
working, because those levels enable the implementation of inclusive education.

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Financing of Inclusive Education 32


The various crises (social, economic, environmental) that repeatedly affect
societies highlight governments’ and international organisations’ weaknesses
and, from time to time, their inability to face those problems or even to find
independent or co-ordinated solutions. Furthermore, the emergence of new
societal challenges makes it necessary to develop new strategies to predict
change, or at least to build a flexible system that can respond effectively to
change. Moreover, in every aspect under development, including education,
coherent and multilateral governance is needed to contribute to inclusion
(UNESCO, 2013b). Successful reform of the financing of inclusive education entails
processes and players that have changed over recent decades, due to new trends,
economic scenarios and social developments (Burns, 2015b).

3.1 School systems’ complexity and the support of governance mechanisms

What makes the current education system complex is the combination of
different factors, among them the growing power of parents, who exercise their
control on school systems and who increasingly demand that schools meet their
children’s needs.

Although there have been great improvements in fund allocation in education
during most of the past decade, the trend has declined in recent years. Moreover,
they have been unbalanced and disproportionate from country to country, even
in countries with similar income levels (Steer and Smith, 2015). This is because
effective implementation of inclusive education does not depend solely on
countries’ economic development or possibilities of dedicating a high amount of
resources to inclusive education. The capacity to implement inclusive education
depends on the ability of governance mechanisms to permit effective
collaboration among stakeholders and to foster strategic behaviours, as well as
monitoring and accountability issues. Moreover, the effectiveness of funding
mechanisms is interrelated with governance approaches and how means,
processes and resources all come together in a country’s policy-making (Meijer,

According to Fazekas and Burns, ‘Governance refers to the process of governing
societies in a situation where no single actor can claim absolute dominance’
(2012, p. 7). A more general definition points out that the governance system
defines not only policies, but also the process involved in implementation. Thus it
entails the co-ordination of many actors, structures and balances (Business
Dictionary, undated).

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