Download Example Distance Distance ENU PDF

TitleExample Distance Distance ENU
TagsElectrical Impedance Electricity Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities
File Size1.4 MB
Total Pages30
Table of Contents
                            Preface
1   Application Example
2   Theoretical Introduction to Distance Characteristics
	2.1   Impedance Diagrams
	2.2   Line Impedance Angle (Short-Circuit Angle)
	2.3   Zero-Sequence Compensation
3   Practical Introduction
	3.1   Defining the Test Object
		3.1.1   Device Settings
		3.1.2   Defining the Distance Protection Parameters
	3.2   Global Hardware Configuration of the CMC Test Set
		3.2.1   Example Output Configuration for Protection Relays with a Secondary Nominal Current of 1 A
		3.2.2   Example Output Configuration for Protection Relays with a Secondary Nominal Current of 5 A
		3.2.3   Analog Outputs
		3.2.4   Binary Inputs
		3.2.5   Wiring of the Test Set for Relays with a Secondary Nominal Current of 1A
	3.3   Local Hardware Configuration for Distance Protection Testing
		3.3.1   Analog Outputs
		3.3.2   Binary Inputs
	3.4   Defining the Test Configuration
		3.4.1   General Approach
		3.4.2   Trip Time Test
		3.4.3   Zone Reach Test
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Testing Distance Protection

Practical Example of Use

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Testing Distance Protection

Manual Version: Expl_DST.AE.1 - Year 2011

© OMICRON electronics. All rights reserved.

This manual is a publication of OMICRON electronics GmbH.

All rights including translation reserved.

The product information, specifications, and technical data embodied in this manual represent the technical
status at the time of writing and are subject to change without prior notice.

We have done our best to ensure that the information given in this manual is useful, accurate, up-to-date and
reliable. However, OMICRON electronics does not assume responsibility for any inaccuracies which may be
present.

The user is responsible for every application that makes use of an OMICRON product.

OMICRON electronics translates this manual from the source language English into a number of other
languages. Any translation of this manual is done for local requirements, and in the event of a dispute between
the English and a non-English version, the English version of this manual shall govern.

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© OMICRON 2011 Page 15 of 30

3.1.2 Defining the Distance Protection Parameters

More specific data concerning the distance protection relay can be entered in the RIO function Distance.
The definition of the distance impedance diagram has to be made here as well.




Note: Once an Advanced Distance / Distance test module is inserted, this RIO function is available.

System Settings

The first tab contains the definition of the system data, the relay behavior as well as the relay tolerances.





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© OMICRON 2011 Page 16 of 30

1. The line length and line angle are the magnitude and angle of the impedance Z of the protected line.
They are needed to calculate faults correctly with respect to the power system.

Protected Line

R jX

Z

R

jX





If the line reactance X is set in the relay, then the impedance Z has to be calculated out of the reactance

X and the line angle . Line length = Z
Ω0.218 32.5 km

km 7.88 Ω
sin sin sin 64

X X l

 

 
   


(see Table 1).

2. Regarding the feeder connection diagram (Figure 2) the PT is placed at line. If at busbar is chosen, the
voltage will have the nominal value after tripping.


At line At busbar

Protected
object;

e.g. line

Busbar

Protected
object;

e.g. line

Busbar


3. The CT starpoint has to be set according to the connection of the secondary windings of the CT. For this
example the feeder connection diagram (Figure 2) shows that the CT grounding is towards the line.


Dir. line Dir. busbar

Relay

Protected
object;

e.g. lineBusbar

Busbar Relay

Protected
object;

e.g. line

Busbar Relay

Protected
object;

e.g. line

Relay

Protected
object;

e.g. lineBusbar


4. The impedance and time tolerances are found in the relay manual.
5. The grounding factor compensates the effect of the ground impedance on the distance zones (see

chapter 2.3 ). For further information on the settings of the grounding factor the Help function should be
used.

6. Select this checkbox to enter all impedances in primary values.
7. This checkbox must be activated, if a 5 A relay is tested which uses 1 A as reference for the impedance

calculation..

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© OMICRON 2011 Page 29 of 30

3.4.3 Zone Reach Test

In the Trigger and the Settings tab the same adjustments as for the trip time test apply.

For the zone reach test the Search Test is used. With this tab the user can define search lines. The test
module applies test shots along these lines to search for the reach of each zone. It is also possible to use
the Check Test. With this test lines are again defined. However, this time test shots will be placed along
these lines outside the tolerance bands. This confirms if the zone reach is within the defined tolerances.




1. Search lines can be defined either by dragging a line in the impedance plane or by setting a start point,

an angle and the length. After a line has been defined, Add is clicked to add them to the list of test lines.
2. By activating Follow line angle change and Relative test lines can be defined in a way that they adapt

to changes of the zone settings or the line angle.
3. In the forward and reverse direction, one search line is defined to test the reactance settings X of the

zones.
4. The resistance settings R of the zones are tested in the same way.
5. Using search lines in parallel to the resistance search lines, the characteristic angle is confirmed.
6. Test lines along the line angle can also be set. This confirms that the relay works correctly in the area

where faults normally occur.



Feedback regarding this application is welcome by email at [email protected]



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Page 30

OMICRON is an international company serving the electrical power
industry with innovative testing and diagnostic solutions. The application of
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