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TitleExamining Ecology: Exercises in Environmental Biology and Conservation
Author
TagsBiology
LanguageEnglish
File Size45.6 MB
Total Pages415
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1 Biodiversity and Taxonomy
Chapter 2 Abiotic Factors and Ecophysiology
Chapter 3 Ecosystems, Energy and Nutrients
Chapter 4 Determining Abundance and Distribution
Chapter 5 Population Growth
Chapter 6 Species Interactions
Chapter 7 Behavioural Ecology and Ecological Genetics
Chapter 8 Environmental Pollution and Perturbations
Chapter 9 Conservation Biology
Chapter 10 Statistics
Chapter 11 Multiple Choice Questions
Answers To Exercises And Multiple Choice Tests
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

EXAMINING ECOLOGY

Page 207

190

Q7.14.1 Draw a graph showing the change in
the percentage of homozygotes in the population
between generation 1 and generation 8.

Q7.14.2 What proportion of the population in
this hypothetical example will be homozygous
recessive (aa) after eight generations?

Q7.14.3 What proportion of the population will
be heterozygous (Aa) after eight generations?

Q7.14.4 If the recessive allele (a) caused a
disease, what proportion of the population
would have the disease in generation 7?

Q7.14.5 Explain why inbreeding is a potential
problem for animals kept in zoos and how this
can be reduced.

References/Further Reading
Frankham, R., & Ralls, K. (1998). Conservation biology:
Inbreeding leads to extinction. Nature, 392, 441–442.

Hedrick, P. W., & Kalinowski, S. T. (2000). Inbreeding
depression in conservation biology. Annual Review of
Ecology and Systematics, 139–162.

http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-809354-2.00007-5/sbref18
http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-809354-2.00007-5/sbref18
http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-809354-2.00007-5/sbref19
http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-809354-2.00007-5/sbref19
http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-809354-2.00007-5/sbref19

Page 208

191

BEhAvIOURAL ECOLOGy AND ECOLOGICAL GENETICS

Exercise 7.15

The Problem of Genetically Isolated
Populations: Inbreeding in Lion and Black
Rhinoceros
The following text is an extract from a paper
published in 2013 by Louise Oates and Paul
Rees entitled The historical ecology of the large
mammal populations of Ngorongoro Crater,
Tanzania, east Africa (Fig. 7.13).

Inbreeding depression may affect the crater’s
rhinoceros population (Moehlman et  al.,
1996; Mills et  al., 2006) and Mills et  al.
(2006) reported that the dominant male had
sired the majority (12 of 19 individuals) of
the rhinoceros. However, neither Moehlman
et al. (1996) nor Mills et al. (2006) found
evidence of any deleterious effects resulting
from inbreeding. Nevertheless, in order
to address the possible future threat of

inbreeding, five rhinoceros were moved
from Addo Elephant National Park, South
Africa to the crater in 1998. It is believed
that these individuals were carrying
babesiosis (Hilsberg et  al., 2003, Mills
et al., 2006). However, it is unclear whether
two individuals that subsequently died of
babesiosis during the drought of 2000 were
residents as claimed by Fyumagwa et  al.
(2004) or translocated animals as claimed
by Nijhof et al. (2003).

The Ngorongoro lions are an isolated
population and the 1962 reduction in
numbers, together with limited immigration
of new individuals, resulted in a much
reduced genetic diversity, confirmed by

Figure 7.13 The Lerai forest in Ngorongoro Crater is an important breeding area for the black rhinoceros population.
A permanent ranger station is located on the edge of the forest.

Page 414

397

Y
Yates’ correction, 286–287
Yellowstone National Park, 267–270

Z
Zalophus californianus. See California sea

lion (Zalophus californianus)

Zebras (Equus burchellii), 20
Zimbabwe

game ranching in, 254–255
sport hunting in, 256–257

Zinc, 168
tolerance in A. capillaris, 188

Zonation on rocky shore, 94–95

Zoo(s), 240–241, 240f, 264–266
conservation role, 262–263
frozen zoos, 241
zoo population of chimpanzees, 103

Zooplankton, sampling of, 110

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