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Page 129

soccer practice at the same time. Like the Brazilians who noted, “Your last
name isn’t going to get you a job in the U.S.,” they are change catalysts who de-
mand equal treatment for all at home. By doing so, they extend the boundaries
of the collective good beyond our national borders to include those in their
homelands.

What constitutes right and wrong, tolerance and fairness is transnation-
ally, not nationally, determined. Fighting poverty, sickness, or pollution is not
just an American project. In countries like India, Pakistan, Brazil, and Ireland,
as well as the United States, most of the people are concerned about raising
their families, helping their communities, and being able to live safely and se-
curely in a place where the system works. These are dreams we all can agree
on. Throwing the religious baby out with the bathwater is no longer an option.

notes

1. I use the word migrant purposefully throughout most of this chapter to capture
the idea that these transnationally oriented individuals are both immigrants and emi-
grants at the same time.

2. For examples, see Glick Schiller (2005), Levitt (2002, 2003, 2004), and
Morawska (2003).

3. Only 13.7 percent were from Europe (Larsen 2004).
4. This figure includes “race alone” or “in combination” (“in combination” indi-

cates that the respondent checked off two or more races). There are 11.6 million Asians
in the “race alone” category.

5. Nine out of 12 of the most popular destinations are located in the Sunbelt or
the West, bringing migration patterns of the foreign-born and native-born more in
sync with each other (Spain 1999).

6. The three states that experienced more than a 200 percent change in the
foreign-born population from 1990 to 2000 were Georgia, Nevada, and North Car-
olina; many midwestern states saw at least 100 percent change (all figures from Mal-
one et al. 2003). Dalla and her colleagues (2005) discuss the “browning” of Midwest
meatpacking communities, where Hispanic and Asian migrants have responded to re-
cruiting efforts by meatpackers to fill labor-intensive and unpleasant positions in the
industry.

7. For an introduction to transnational migration scholarship, see Basch, Glick
Schiller, and Szanton Blanc (1992, 1994); Ebaugh and Chafetz (2002); Faist (2000);
Glick Schiller (1999); Glick Schiller and Fouron (2001); Grasmuck and Pessar (1991);
Itzigsohn (2000); Kyle (2001); Levitt (2001a, 2001b); Mahler (1998); Morawska
(2003); Portes, Guarnizo, and Landolt (1999); Smith and Guarnizo (1998); Van der
Veer (2001); and Vertovec (2003).

8. World-Polity theorists and neo-institutionalists argue that there is a universalis-
tic or global level of cultural and organizational formation that creates and strongly in-
fluences states, business enterprises, groups, and individuals. More and more, actors
define themselves and their interests in response to the global cultural and organiza-
tional structures in which they are embedded (Boli and Thomas 1999; Meyer 2003).

redefining the boundaries of belonging 115

Page 130

Some, however, see global cultural production as an encounter between the global and
the local. Instead of conceptualizing the global as macro-level political and economic
forces that stand in opposition to local cultural elements, they explore where and how
the global and the local meet, and the ways in which power hierarchies, as well as rela-
tions of reciprocity and solidarity, shape these encounters (Appadurai 1996; Gupta and
Ferguson 1997; Hannerz 1992; Ong 1999).

9. Although the vast majority of new immigrants are Christian (80 percent), in-
cluding large numbers of nondenominational evangelicals, there are also significant
numbers entering the country who are Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist. Jasso and her
colleagues (2003) found that 17 percent of immigrants who were admitted to the
United States in the summer of 1996 expressed a religious preference other than
Christian, Jewish, or none at all, more than four times that of the overall U.S. popula-
tion (4 percent). Barry Kosmin, leader of the ARIS project, points out that the in-
creased diversity of sending countries has changed the religious makeup of Asian mi-
grants. Between 1990 and 2001, the proportion of the Asian American population who
are Christian has fallen from 63 percent to 43 percent, while the percentage of those
professing Asian religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, etc) has risen from 15 per-
cent to 28 percent (Kosmin 2001). See also polls by Gallup (Newport 2004), the Pew
Research Center on the People and the Press (2004), and Barna Research Group
(2004) that indicate anywhere between 5 and 11 percent of Americans belong to non-
Christian faiths.

references

Ammerman, Nancy. 1997. Golden Rule Christianity: Lived Religion in the American
Mainstream. In Lived Religion in America: Toward a History of Practice, ed. David D.
Hall, 196–216. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Anderson, Benedict R. 1991. Imagined Communities: Re�ections on the Origin and
Spread of Nationalism. London, Verso.

Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.

Barna Research Group. 2004. Ethnic Groups Differ Substantially on Matters of Faith.
The Barna Update for August 10, 2004. http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?
Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=169.

Basch, Linda G., Nina Glick Schiller, and Cristina Szanton Blanc, eds. 1992. Towards a
Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Nationalism Re-
considered. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

———. 1994. Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and
Deterritorialized Nation-States. Langhorne, Pa.: Gordon and Breach.

Beyer, Peter. 1994. Religion and Globalization. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1994.
———. 2001. Introduction. In Religion in the Process of Globalization, ed. Peter Beyer,

i–xliv. Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Boli, John, and George M. Thomas, eds. 1999. Constructing World Culture. Palo Alto,

Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Bowen, John R. 2004. Beyond Migration: Islam as a Transnational Public Space. Jour-

nal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30:879–94.

116 religion “out of place”

http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=169
http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=169

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