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TitleEuropean Glossary on Education
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            European Glossary on Education
	Volume 1 - Second edition : Examinations, Qualifications and Titles
	Preface
	Table of contents
	Introduction
	User's guide
	Part I — Glossary
		A
		B
		C
		D
		E
		F
		G
		H
		I
		J
		K
		L
		M
		N
		O
		P
		Q
		R
		S
		T
		U
		V
		W
		Y
		Z
	Part II — Summary tables
		European Union
			Belgium
				French Community
				German-speaking Community
				Flemish Community
			Czech Republic
			Denmark
			Germany
			Estonia
			Greece
			Spain
			France
			Ireland
			Italy
			Cyprus
			Latvia
			Lithuania
			Luxembourg
			Hungary
			Malta
			The Netherlands
			Austria
			Poland
			Portugal
			Slovenia
			Slovakia
			Finland
			Sweden
			United Kindgom
				England, Wales and Norther Ireland
				Scotland
		EFTA/EEA Countries
			Iceland
			Liechtenstein
			Norway
		Pre-Accession Countries
			Bulgaria
			Romania
	Acknowledgements
	Impressum
Verso
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Untitled


EURYDICE, the information network
on education in Europe

Eurydice is an institutional network for gathering, monitoring, processing and circulating
reliable and readily comparable information on education systems and policies throughout
Europe. The Network focuses primarily on the way education in Europe is structured and
organised at all levels. Its publications output may be broadly divided into descriptions of
national education systems, comparative studies devoted to specific topics, and indicators
and statistics.

Eurydice works mainly for those involved in educational policy-making nationally and
in the European Union institutions, as well as at regional and local levels. However, its
publications may be consulted by anyone and are available both in print and over the
Internet.

First launched by the European Community in 1980, the Eurydice Network consists
of a European Unit set up by the European Commission in Brussels and National Units
established by education ministries in all countries taking part in Socrates, the EU
education action programme. Eurydice has been an integral part of Socrates since
1995. The Network boosts European cooperation in education by developing exchanges
of information about systems and policies and producing studies on issues common to
education systems.

Eurydice is a dynamic interdependent Network to whose work all Units contribute. The
European Unit coordinates the activity of the Network, drafts and distributes most of its
publications, and designs and administers Eurydice databases and the central website.
National Units provide and are involved in processing the data on which this activity relies
and ensure that the output of the Network reaches target groups within their countries. In
most countries, Units are situated within the education ministry. In a few, however, they are
located in library resource centres, or bodies for administration and research.

EURYDICE on the Internet: http://www.eurydice.org

European G
lossary on Education, volum

e 1 - Exam
inations, Q

ualifications and Titles
Directorate-General for Education and Culture

European Commission

EURYDICE

European Glossary on Education

Volume 1 – Second edition

R
PVQ
ÜT

E

F
LG
K

A
Examinations, Qualifications
and Titles

Page 2

EEURYDICE

European Glossary on
Education
Volume 1 − Second edition

Examinations, Qualifi cations and
Titles

Eurydice
The information network on education in Europe

Page 134

Examinations, Qualifi cations and Titles 133

Licentiat (+)
Country: Sweden
Grammatical variants: Licentiaten, licentiater,
licentiaterna
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Title conferred on holders of a
➧ Licentiatexamen, normally with a prefi x referring
either to the faculty or area of study in which the
degree is obtained, for example fi losofi e licentiat,
and frequently used in its abbreviated form, e.g.
fi l.lic.

Licentiate
Country: Malta
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Title obtainable in sacred the-
ology, a specialist degree in pastoral theology
awarded after 2 years of full-time study subse-
quent to the 5-year ➧ Bachelor’s degree.

Licentiatexamen
Country: Finland
Grammatical variants: -examina
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Swedish term for ➧ Lisensiaa-
tin tutkinto (+).

Licentiatexamen (+)
Country: Sweden
Grammatical variants: Licentiatexamina
Level: ISCED 6
Explanatory note: Degree obtained in any uni-
versity faculty after 2 years of full-time doctoral
studies, including the writing of a dissertation.
The degree certifi cate indicates the fi eld of spe-
cialisation and title of the dissertation. It confers
the title of ➧ Licentiat (+) on its holders who may
continue doctoral studies and obtain a ➧ Doktors-
examen (+) after a further 2 years. The name of the
degree refers either to the faculty or area of study
in which it is obtained, for example fi losofi e licen-
tiat examen (licenciat in philosophy).

Licentiatus (+)
Country: Norway
Grammatical variants: Licentiata
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Degree and title obtained
only very rarely by students who pass fi nal writ-
ten and oral examinations at the end of stud-
ies lasting one-and-a-half years in between the
➧ Candidatus (+) and ➧ Doctor (+) in the fi elds of
law or odontology. Abbreviation: Lic. (+).

Liecība
Country: Latvia
Grammatical variants: Liecības, liecību
Level: ISCED 2 and 3

Explanatory note: Certifi cate (statement of
marks) testifying to satisfactory completion of
part of basic or general secondary education. It is
awarded to those concerned at the end of every
school year, as well as to pupils who have done
a basic education programme (pamatizglītība)
or general (upper) secondary education pro-
gramme (vispārējā vidējā izglītība), but have not
passed their assessment in some subjects or some
➧ Valsts pārbaudījums. The certifi cate may also be
obtained in special education. It is awarded by
schools in accordance with government regula-
tions and indicates the subjects taken and fi nal
marks obtained. Pupils with the liecība may con-
tinue training in basic vocational education or
vocational education, provided they are aged at
least 15.

Lisensiaatin tutkinto (+)
Country: Finland
Grammatical variants: -tutkinnot, -tutkinto*,
-tutkinno*
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note:
• In fi elds other than medicine, dentistry and

veterinary medicine, an optional advanced pre-
doctoral degree awarded to students who have
already obtained the ➧ Maisterin tutkinto (+) and
successfully completed about 2 years of full-
time study (4 years in psychology). To obtain
the degree, students prepare a thesis which is
publicly disputed and assessed by two or more
impartial examiners appointed by the univer-
sity or faculty concerned. The details indicated
on the degree certifi cate are not governed by
national regulations but determined by the
university concerned. The degree gives access
to advanced study and research leading to the
➧ Tohtorin tutkinto (+). The prefi x in its name re-
fers to the fi eld of study, for example teologian
lisensiaatin tutkinto.

• In the fi elds of medicine, dentistry and vet-
erinary medicine, a degree awarded to students
who have successfully completed 5 to 6 years of
full-time study at university (yliopisto). To obtain
the degree, students prepare a thesis which is
assessed in accordance with the regulations
of the faculty. The details indicated on the de-
gree certifi cate are not governed by national
regulations but determined by the university
concerned. The degree gives access to the la-
bour market, to specialised study leading to the
➧ Erikoistumistutkinto or to advanced study and
research leading to the ➧ Tohtorin tutkinto (+).

It confers on its holder the title of ➧ Lisensiaatti (+).
Swedish term: Licentiatexamen.

Lisensiaatin tutkinto

Page 135

European Glossary on Education − Volume 1134

Lisensiaatti (+)
Country: Finland
Grammatical variants: Lisensiaatit, lisensiaati*,
lisensiaatti*
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Title conferred on holders of
the ➧ Lisensiaatin tutkinto (+), normally preceded
by the name of the fi eld of study, for example teo-
logian lisensiaatti. Swedish term: Licentiat.

Lizentiat
Country: Germany
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Title conferred on students
who have obtained the ➧ Lizentiatengrad degree
in theology. Abbreviation: Lic. theol.

Lizentiatengrad
Country: Germany
Grammatical variants: Lizentiatengrade,
Lizentiatengrad*
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Further academic degree
awarded to students who have passed the ➧ Lizen-
tiatenprüfung examination on successful comple-
tion of graduate studies, usually in Catholic theol-
ogy. The degree is similar to the ➧ Diplomgrad or
equivalent fi rst qualifi cation in the same fi eld. It
confers on its holder the title of ➧ Lizentiat.

Lizentiatenprüfung
Country: Germany
Grammatical variants: Lizentiatenprüfungen,
Lizentiatenprüfung*
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Final examination usually in
Catholic theology at universities. It involves the
defence of a written thesis, and an oral exam-
ination organised by a committee consisting of
members of a Catholic university. Successful stu-
dents receive the ➧ Lizentiatengrad.

LLM
Country: United Kingdom
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Abbreviation of Master of
Laws. See ➧ Masters degree.

London Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Examinations Board qualifi cations
Country: United Kingdom (ENG/WLS/NIR)
Level: ISCED 3
Explanatory note: Business-related qualifi cations
designed and awarded by the London Chamber
of Commerce and Industry Examinations Board
(LCCIEB) covering areas such as fi nance, admin-
istration, marketing, information technology and
languages (e.g. business English and foreign lan-
guages). The qualifi cations are intended for young

people who have completed compulsory educa-
tion and for adults, and are off ered in further edu-
cation institutions and by training providers. Many
of them are also available overseas. Qualifi cations
used in the UK are accredited by the relevant qual-
ifi cations and curriculum authority. They are des-
ignated levels 1-4 and graded ‘pass’, ‘credit’ or ‘dis-
tinction’. The levels relate closely to the National
Qualifi cations Framework (NQF). Group Certifi cates
generally consist of 3 subjects at the same level
which must be completed in a single series or over
a 3-month period. Group Diplomas combine sub-
jects across diff erent levels and candidates must
complete them in one to two years depending on
the award. Assessment methods vary depending
on the qualifi cation but may include externally
marked written examinations. These qualifi ca-
tions give access to further vocational study, for
example at the next level in the NQF. They are also
recognised by many employers and may in some
cases lead to professional accreditation. Certain
universities accept Group Certifi cates at Level 3 for
entry to ➧ Bachelors degree courses.

Lõpueksam
Country: Estonia
Grammatical variants: Lõpueskami, lõpueksamit
Level: ISCED 5
Explanatory note: Final examination taken on
completion of three to four-and-a-half years
of vocational tertiary education (diplomiõpe,
kutsekõrgharidusõpe, rakenduskõrgharidusõpe).
For students who defend a fi nal paper this exami-
nation is not compulsory. It is organised by each
institution, which also determines its content.
Successful students receive a ➧ Diplom.

Lõputunnistus keskhariduse baasil
kutsekeskhariduse omandamise kohta
Country: Estonia
Grammatical variants: Lõputunnistuse,
lõputunnistused
Level: ISCED 4
Explanatory note: Certifi cate issued to students
who have completed at least one year of post-
secondary vocational education at a kutseõppea-
sutus. For further information, see ➧ Lõputunnistus
põhihariduse baasil kutsekeskhariduse omanda-
mise kohta.

Lõputunnistus põhihariduse baasil
kutsekeskhariduse omandamise kohta
Country: Estonia
Grammatical variants: Lõputunnistuse,
lõputunnistused
Level: ISCED 3
Explanatory note: Certifi cate awarded to pupils
who have successfully completed 3 years of voca-

Lisensiaatti

Page 268

Directorate-General for Education and Culture

European Commission

EURYDICE

European Glossary on Education

Volume 1 – Second edition
EURYDICE, the information network

on education in Europe

Eurydice is an institutional network for gathering, monitoring, processing and circulating
reliable and readily comparable information on education systems and policies throughout
Europe. The Network focuses primarily on the way education in Europe is structured and
organised at all levels. Its publications output may be broadly divided into descriptions of
national education systems, comparative studies devoted to specific topics, and indicators
and statistics.

Eurydice works mainly for those involved in educational policy-making nationally and
in the European Union institutions, as well as at regional and local levels. However, its
publications may be consulted by anyone and are available both in print and over the
Internet.

First launched by the European Community in 1980, the Eurydice Network consists
of a European Unit set up by the European Commission in Brussels and National Units
established by education ministries in all countries taking part in Socrates, the EU
education action programme. Eurydice has been an integral part of Socrates since
1995. The Network boosts European cooperation in education by developing exchanges
of information about systems and policies and producing studies on issues common to
education systems.

Eurydice is a dynamic interdependent Network to whose work all Units contribute. The
European Unit coordinates the activity of the Network, drafts and distributes most of its
publications, and designs and administers Eurydice databases and the central website.
National Units provide and are involved in processing the data on which this activity relies
and ensure that the output of the Network reaches target groups within their countries. In
most countries, Units are situated within the education ministry. In a few, however, they are
located in library resource centres, or bodies for administration and research.

EURYDICE on the Internet: http://www.eurydice.org

R
PVQ
ÜT

E

F
LG
K

A
Examinations, Qualifications
and Titles

European G
lossary on Education, volum

e 1 - Exam
inations, Q

ualifications and Titles

http://www.eurydice.org

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