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TitleEnvironmental Toxicology: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
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Table of Contents
                            Environmental Toxicology
	Contents
	Chapter 1: Environmental Toxicology, Introduction
		Ecological Risk Assessment
		Monitoring
		Mechanisms
		Fate and Transport
		Prevention
		Correctives
	Chapter 2: Airborne Toxic Chemicals
		Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
		Introduction
		Toxics in the Air
			Where Do They Come From?
			Where Do They Go?
		Regulation and Monitoring
		The Toxic Cycle: Specific Examples
			Mobile Sources: A Balancing Act
			Perchloroethylene: Keeping Things Clean
			Mercury: A Global Toxin
		Human Health
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 3: Bioaccumulation/Biomagnifications in Food Chains
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
			The Fundamental Ecological Context and Simple Food Chain Theory
			Food Chain Magnification Principles
		Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
			History
			Nature and Extent of the Problem
			Symptomology
			Environmental and Biological Controls
			The Toxin
			Variability of Incidence
			Evidence of Biomagnification
		Methylmercury
			Hg: Sources and Cycling
			Mercury Poisoning: Human Symptomologies and Historical Examples
			Etiology of Mercury Intoxication
			Exposure Limits
			Mercury in the Oceanic Ecosystem
			Mercury and Selenium
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 4: Biomarkers and Metabolomics, Evidence of Stress
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Applications of Metabolomics
			Metabolomics in Animal Sciences
			Applications in Plant Sciences
			Metabolomics in Microbiology
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 5: Bioremediation and Mitigation
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
			Microbial Parameters for Successful Mitigation
			Candidate Contaminants for Bioremediation
			Advantages of Bioremediation
			Disadvantages of Bioremediation
			Single Species Versus Community Approaches
			Economics
			In situ and Ex situ Bioremediation Approaches
		Bioremediation Technologies Available for Sustainable Mitigation
		Mitigation Case Studies with Petroleum and Related Hydrocarbons
			Categories of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
			Fate of Petroleum upon Entering Soils
			The Toxic Component of Petroleum
			Ex situ Approach for Soils/Sediments
				Land Treatment Unit (LTU) Along an Active Railway
			Ex situ Approaches for Groundwater
				Recovery and Biological Treatment of Wood Preservatives in Groundwater
			In situ Approaches for Soils, Sediments, and Groundwater
				In situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Site Soils at a Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Station
		Future Directions
			Improved Mitigation Drivers
			Defining Stakeholders
			Developing National and International Bioremediation Mitigation Programs
		Conclusions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 6: Biosensors and Bioassays for Ecological Risk Monitoring and Assessment
		Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
		Introduction
			Biosensor Introduction
		Principles of SPR Sensors
			Sensor Surface Preparation
				Modifying the Gold Surface for Covalent Attachment of Recognition Elements
			Examples of SAMs Used for SPR Sensors
			Referencing
			Sensor Storage and Preservation
			Sample Acquisition from the Environment and Removal of Interferents
			Immunomagnetic Particle Purification of Specific Analyte
			Detection Strategies
			Detection Limit by Analyte Type
			Small Molecule Detection
		Direct Detection of Protein Analytes
		Subtractive Inhibition Assays for Large Molecules (Whole Cells)
			Multiplex Detection
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 7: CERCLA, Sustainability and Public and Environmental Health
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction to CERCLA
		Understanding CERCLA
			Original CERCLA and Basic Elements
		SARA Revisions of CERCLA
		Citizen Roles
		NCP, NPL, and Site Procedures
		Remediation Priorities and ARARs
		ATSDR and the CERCLA List
		Liability Scheme
		Defenses
		Enforcement Tools
		States and Local Governments Under CERCLA
		Case Study: Agriculture Street Landfill Project
		Criticisms of CERCLA
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 8: Ecological and Health Risks at Low Doses
		Definition of Subject
		Introduction
		Physiological Response to Low Doses
		Specific Examples
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
	Chapter 9: Ecological Risk Assessment and Animal Models
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Animal Models in the Basic Framework of Risk Assessment
			Overview
			Monitoring Trends in the Environment
		Considerations When Determining Which Organisms to Use for an Ecological Risk Assessment
			Levels of Biological Organization
			Exposure Time, Organismal Characteristics, and Exposure Routes
		Field Studies and Toxicity Testing
			Standard Toxicity Tests
			Nonstandard Tests and Field Tests
		Other Assays Providing Support to Risk Assessments
			Biological Surveys
			Biomarkers and Toxicokinetic Models
		Future Directions Using Animal Models in Risk Assessments
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 10: Environmental Toxicology: Carcinogenesis
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Accumulation of Mutations
		Properties of Cancer Cells
		Oncogenic Mutations
			Single Base Mutations
			Chromosomal Aberrations
			Indel Mutations
			Epigenetic Mutations
		Cytotoxicity and Cellular Turnover
		Genomic Instability
			Chromosomal Instability (CIN)
			Microsatellite Instability (MSI)
			Nucleotide Instability (NIS)
			Epigenetic Instability (EIS)
		Susceptible Individuals
		Dose and Complex Dose
		Environmental Carcinogens
			Alcohol
			Sunlight
			Tobacco Smoke
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 11: Environmental Toxicology: Children at Risk
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction: Brief History of the Issue of Children´s Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards
		Toxicological Basis of Children´s Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards: Susceptibility and Exposure Factors Affecting Childr...
			Exposure
				Ingestion, Breathing, and Drinking Rates
				Behavioral Patterns Influencing Exposure in Children
				The Unique Microenvironment of Children
				Toxicokinetics
			Developmental Aspects of Children´s Susceptibility: Critical Periods of Development
				Effects During Gestation
				Effects on Germ Cells
				Embryonic and Fetal Development During Pregnancy
				Development During Childhood
				Cellular Metabolism and Biotransformation
		Major Groups of Pollutants to Which Children are Exposed
			Heavy Metals
			Pesticides
			Environmental Tobacco Smoke
			Persistent Organic Compounds: PCBs, Dioxins, and Related Organohalogens
			Disinfection By-products (DBPs)
		Environmental Threats to Children on Specific Organ Systems
			Nervous System
				Lead
				Mercury
				PCBs, Dioxins, and Related Organohalogens
				Pesticides
			Endocrine System
			Reproductive System
			Neonatal Mortality, Growth Restriction, and Birth Defects
			Respiratory System
				Indoor Air Pollution
				Environmental Tobacco Smoke
				Outdoor Air Pollution
			Cancer
			Ionizing Radiation
			UV Light
			Environmental Tobacco Smoke
			Pesticides and Cancer
			Disinfection By-products and Cancer
			Arsenic
			Air Pollution and Childhood Cancer
			Endocrine Disruptors and Cancer
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
	Chapter 12: Environmental Toxicology: Oxidative Stress
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Evolution of ``Free Radical´´ and ``Radical-Free´´ Concepts of Oxidative Stress
		Radical Mechanisms of Environmental Toxicity
		Non-radical Mechanisms of Environmental Toxicity
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 13: Harmful Algal Blooms
		Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
		Introduction
		Alexandrium
			Description
			Toxicity
			Economics
			Detection
			Origins and Nutrient Interactions
		Karenia brevis
			Description
			Toxicity
			Economics
			Detection
			Origins and Nutrient Interactions
		Pseudo-nitzschia
			Description
			Toxicity
			Economics
			Detection
				Species Identification
				Domoic Acid Detection and Quantitation
			Origins and Nutrient Interactions
		Cyanobacteria
			Description
			Toxicity
				Hepatotoxins
				Neurotoxins
				Other Cyanobacterial Toxins
				beta-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine (BMAA)
			Economics
			Detection
			Origins and Nutrient Interactions
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 14: Microbial Risk Assessment of Pathogens in Water
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		The Safe Water Framework
			Health Targets
			Risk Management
			Public Health Status
		Risk Assessment
		Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
			Element 1. Problem Formulation and Hazard Identification
				Step 1. Description of the System from Source to Tap
				Step 2. Hazard Identification
				Step 3. Description of Hazardous Events
			Element 2. Exposure Assessment
				Step 4. Assess Pathogen Occurrence in Source Water
				Step 5. Assess the Elimination of Pathogens During Treatment
				Step 6. Assess the Changes in Water Quality During Storage and Distribution
				Step 7. Consumption of Drinking Water
				Step 8. Dose (Exposure) Estimation
			Element 3. Effect Assessment
				Step 9. Dose-Response Data
				Step 10. Host Characterization
				Step 11. Health Outcome
			Element 4. Risk Characterization
		Tiered Approach
		Good QMRA Practice
		Uncertainty Analysis
		Applications of QMRA
			QMRA to Assess the Safety of a Drinking Water Supply
			Comparing Water Supply Scenarios with QMRA
			QMRA to Evaluate the Health Risk of Hazardous Events
		QMRA for Water Reuse
			Comparing Risks Between Different Uses of Reclaimed Wastewater (California)
			Health Risk of Reuse for Crop Irrigation (Australia; Probabilistic)
			Guidelines for Safe Reuse (Australia)
		Future Directions
			Improving the Technique of QMRA
			Improving the Utility of QMRA
		Bibliography
	Chapter 15: Pathogen and Nutrient Transfer Through and Across Agricultural Soils
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Agriculture, Livestock, Manures, and Contaminants
			Dangerous Microorganisms in Agricultural Systems
			The Nutrients of Concern
			Sources of Pathogens, Indicators, and Nutrients
		The Transfer of Pathogens and Nutrients Through and Across Soils
			Soil Characteristics Impacting on Transfer
			Colloid and Particle Associated Transfer
			Rapid Pathways of Contaminant Transfer
			Slow Pathways of Contaminant Transfer
			The Role of Groundwater
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 16: Recreational Water Risk: Pathogens and Fecal Indicators
		Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
		Introduction
		Pathogens in Coastal Waters
		Assessing Risk: Epidemiology and Indicator Organisms
		Assessing Risk: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) Modeling
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 17: Science, Policy, and Risk Management: Case of Seafood Safety
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		``Food Safety Hazards´´ Associated with Seafood
			Seafood-Associated Toxins
				Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
				Scombrotoxic Fish Poisoning
				Other Major Seafood-Borne Poisonings
			Microbial Pathogens
				Pathogenic Bacteria
				Seafood-Associated Viruses
				Seafood-Associated Parasites
			Toxic Heavy Metals
			Other Chemical Environmental Contaminants
		What Are the Approaches Used to Assure Public Safety?
			Regulatory Agencies
			The Scientific Community´s Contribution in Ensuring Seafood Safety
				Detection Tools for Seafood-Associated Health Hazards
				Examples of Recent Technological Breakthroughs in Efforts to Free Seafood from Associated Contaminants
		Future Directions and Conclusions
		Compliance Policy/Regulation Related Citations
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 18: Sentinel Species in Oceans and Human Health
		Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
		Introduction
		Desirable Characteristics for Marine Sentinels
		Sentinel Applications for Monitoring Exposure
			Chemical Contaminants
			Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Toxins
			Zoonotic Pathogens
		Sentinels for Establishing Pathogenicity and Elucidating Mechanisms for Toxicity
			Invertebrates
			Amphibian, Fish, and Reptiles
			Marine Mammals
		Sentinel Habitats
			Coral Reefs
			Tidal Creeks
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 19: Solar Radiation and Human Health
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		UV Radiation and Health Effects
			Vitamin D
				Vitamin D Metabolism
				Reference Values
				Musculoskeletal Disease
				Cancer
				Diabetes Mellitus
				Cardiovascular Disease
				Mortality
			Sunburn (Erythema)
		UV Index
			Exposure Times to Optimize Health Effects of UV Radiation
			Skin Cancer
				Environmental Risk Factor(s)
				Biological Damage Leading to Skin Cancer
				Etiology of Skin Cancer
			Immunosuppression
			Skin Treatments
			Eye Damage
			Photoconjunctivitis
			Photokeratitis
			Cataract
		Visible Radiation and Health Effects
			Circadian Effects
			Damage of the Retina
		Infrared Effects
		Effects for Which the Spectral Responsivity Is Not Yet Known
			Depression
			Human Behavior in Response to Solar Radiation
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
	Chapter 20: Toxic Chemical Risks
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Lifestyle-Associated Exposure to Toxic Chemicals
			Smoking
			Alcohol Consumption
			Drug Abuse/Misuse
			Obesity
		Exposure to Toxic Chemicals in the Home
			Lead
			Other Chemicals
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 21: Ultraviolet Radiation: Distribution and Variability
		Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
		Introduction
		Factors Affecting Surface Ultraviolet Radiation
			Earth to Sun Distance
			Solar Zenith Angle
			Clouds
			Molecular Scattering
			Ozone
		Stratospheric Ozone Hole
			Aerosols
			Surface Reflectivity
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 22: UV Effects on Living Organisms
		Definition of the Subject
		Introduction
		Biological Effectiveness of UV Radiation
			Biologically Effective Irradiance and Dose
			Dose-Response Relationship
				Erythema
			Action Spectra
		Transmission to the Effective Skin Dose
			Orientation and UV Environment
				Direct Beam Radiation
				Diffuse Irradiance
				Obstruction of the Sky
				Models
				Vegetation
			Behavior
			Hair Coat
			Transmission Through Water, Snow, and Ice
				Water
				Ice and Snow
		Biological Effects on Microorganisms
			UV Environment of Microorganisms
				Airborne Microorganisms
				Waterborne Microorganisms
			Effects of UV Radiation on Microorganisms
				Damage
				Disinfection
				Protection and Repair
				Vital Effects
			Changing UV Environment
		Effects of UV Radiation on Plants
			UVB Radiation Damages
				Genetic Damage (DNA Damage)
				Ultrastructural Cell Damage
				Inhibition of Photosynthesis
				Plant Morphology and Architecture
				Phenology and Reproductive Processes
				Growth and Dry Matter Production
			Strategies for Protection Against UVB Radiation
			Repair Mechanisms
			Defense Mechanisms
				Selection or Genetic Improvement
			Effect of UVB on Aquatic Plants and Macroalgae
			UVB and Agricultural and Natural Terrestrial Plants
				Methodologies Used for the UV Experiments
				UVB and Woody Plants
				UVB and Herbaceous Plants
				UVB and Field Crops
				Yield and Yield Components
		Animals
			Pets
				UV Hazards
				Vitamin D in Pets
			Farm Animals
				UV Hazards
				Vitamin D
			Fish and Fisheries
				UV Hazards
				Vitamin D
			Zoo Animals
		Future Directions
		Bibliography
			Primary Literature
			Books and Reviews
	Chapter 23: Xenobiotic Protection/Resistance Mechanisms in Organisms
		Definition of Subject
		Introduction
		Mechanisms of Resistance
			Toxicokinetically Derived Resistance Mechanisms
				Reductions in Xenobiotic Uptake
				Increases in Xenobiotic Elimination and Reductions in Accumulation
				Oxidation
				Reduction
				Hydrolysis
				Glucuronidation
				Sulfation
				Methylation
				Acylation
				Glutathione Conjugation and Mercapturic Acid Formation
				ABC Proteins
				Solute Carrier Proteins
				Storage
			Toxicodynamically Derived Resistance Mechanisms
				Cellular Detoxification
				Target Site Alterations
				Circumvention of Target
		Conclusions and Future Directions
		Bibliography
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Environmental Toxicology

Page 2

This volume collects selected topical entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science
and Technology (ESST). ESST addresses the grand challenges for science and engineering
today. It provides unprecedented, peer-reviewed coverage of sustainability science and
technology with contributions from nearly 1,000 of the world’s leading scientists and
engineers, who write on more than 600 separate topics in 38 sections. ESST establishes a
foundation for the research, engineering, and economics supporting the many sustainability
and policy evaluations being performed in institutions worldwide.

Editor-in-Chief
ROBERT A. MEYERS, RAMTECH LIMITED, Larkspur, CA, USA

Editorial Board
RITA R. COLWELL, Distinguished University Professor, Center for Bioinformatics and
Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

ANDREAS FISCHLIN, Terrestrial Systems Ecology, ETH-Zentrum, Zürich, Switzerland

DONALD A. GLASER, Glaser Lab, University of California, Berkeley, Department of
Molecular & Cell Biology, Berkeley, CA, USA

TIMOTHY L. KILLEEN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA, USA

HAROLD W. KROTO, Francis Eppes Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry
and Biochemistry, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA

AMORY B. LOVINS, Chairman & Chief Scientist, Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass,
USA

LORD ROBERT MAY, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1
3PS, UK

DANIEL L. MCFADDEN, Director of Econometrics Laboratory, University of California,
Berkeley, CA, USA

THOMAS C. SCHELLING, 3105 Tydings Hall, Department of Economics, University of
Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

CHARLES H. TOWNES, 557 Birge, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

EMILIO AMBASZ, Emilio Ambasz & Associates, Inc., New York, NY, USA

CLARE BRADSHAW, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University,
Stockholm, Sweden

TERRY COFFELT, Research Geneticist, Arid Land Agricultural Research Center,
Maricopa, AZ, USA
MEHRDAD EHSANI, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX, USA

ALI EMADI, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of
Technology, Chicago, IL, USA

CHARLES A. S. HALL, College of Environmental Science & Forestry, State University
of New York, Syracuse, NY, USA

RIK LEEMANS, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University,
Wageningen, The Netherlands

KEITH LOVEGROVE, Department of Engineering (Bldg 32), The Australian National
University, Canberra, Australia

TIMOTHY D. SEARCHINGER, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University,
Princeton, NJ, USA

Page 366

That leads to the question of what level of health risk through drinking water could

be tolerated, given the overall health status of the consumer population and the

contribution of drinking water to the overall health risk of this population in relation

to other routes of exposure, such as food, person-to-person or animal contact,

recreational water, etc. This is a question that typically needs answering on the

level of the regulator, who can translate this information into a health target for

drinking water, considering other factors such as relative contribution of drinking

water–transmitted disease to the overall health burden and the economic climate.

The health target is the level of tolerable risk for drinking water, which could be

expressed as the tolerable risk of infection through drinking water (i.e., risk of

infection <10�4 per person per year [61]) or the tolerable amount of disease burden
(i.e., <10�6 disability adjusted life years per person per year [31, 73]). The health
target could be translated into water quality targets for pathogens (analogous to the

toxic chemicals). In the latter case, rather than producing a standard and monitoring

requirement for all pathogens that could be transmitted through drinkingwater, the use

of a suite of “index pathogens” is advisable. Establishment of adequate control against

this suite of pathogens should offer protection against the other known (and even

unknown) pathogens.

It is emphasized that the health targets may be different in different health status

situations. The question of what is a tolerable level of risk is a judgment in which the

society as a whole has a role to play; the decision on the cost-benefit is for each

country to decide [71, 73]. It is important that health-based targets, defined by the

relevant health authority, are realistic under local operating conditions and are set to

protect and improve public health. Health-based targets underpin development of

Water Safety Plans [73] and provide information with which to evaluate the adequacy

of existing installations, and assist in identifying the level and type of inspection and

analytical verifications appropriate.

Risk Management

Managing the safety of drinking water has been the core business of water supply

companies for more than a century. Over this period, risk management has evolved

into a culture, with codes and specifications of good practice. In the last few

decades, quality management systems have been used in the water industry to

formalize these practices. Currently, water suppliers in several European Union

(EU) countries are using a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

based approach for management of (microbiological and other) risks. The basic

principles of HACCP are to understand the system and the hazards/hazardous

events that may challenge the system and their (health) priority and to ensure that

control measures are in place and functioning. HACCP-based systems typically

focus on good practice and even more specifically on ensuring that good practice is

maintained at all times. HACCP fits within existing quality management systems

(i.e., ISO 9001 c.s.). HACCP is the risk management tool that is used in food safety.

14 Microbial Risk Assessment of Pathogens in Water 365

Page 367

The Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO code for food safety) defines HACCP as

a system that identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards that are significant for food

safety [10]. The HACCP system is well established in the food industry.

Although there are many aspects of drinking water that are similar to food, there

are also differences. Based on experiences of water suppliers with HACCP, the

HACCP system has been refined and tailored for application in drinking water

abstraction, treatment, and distribution in WHO’s Water Safety Plan. The Water

Safety Plan is described in the third revision of the Guidelines for Drinking

Water Quality [73].

The principal components of the Water Safety Plan are:

System assessment to determine whether the water supply chain (from source
through treatment to the point of consumption) as a whole can deliver water of

a quality that meets the above targets.

Operational monitoring of the control measures in the supply chain that are of
particular importance in securing drinking water safety.

Management plans documenting the system assessment and monitoring, and
describing actions to be taken in normal operation and incident conditions,

including upgrade and improvement documentation and communication.

In the Water Safety Plan, the risk assessment question: “Do we meet the health

target?” is answered in the System Assessment and the risk management questions
“How do we ensure and demonstrate that we always meet the target?” and “How do

we respond to incidents?” are answered in the Operational monitoring of control
measures and the Management plans.

For an overview of the Water Safety Plan and its context, the reader is referred to

theWHOGDWQ and theWater Safety Plan guidance documents that are published

on the website of WHO Water, Sanitation, and Health.

Public Health Status

The primary objective of drinking water safety management is the adequate protec-

tion of public health. The incidence of waterborne illness in the population or the

occurrences of waterborne outbreaks are direct triggers for curative risk manage-

ment. A more preventative incentive for assessing the water-related health risks and

the installation of risk management is to demonstrate that the water supply is

providing an adequate level of protection of public health.

The installation of health targets in national legislation and the risk manage-

ment actions of water utilities should result in an improvement of the status of

public health. Without addressing this, it is impossible to see if the health

targets set and risk management actions taken are effective and if money

spent for improving water supply results in a relevant health gain. This step

in the process is the place where the health risk of drinking water can be

compared to other routes of exposure and to other health risks. It allows

366 G. Medema

Page 731

tumor suppressor genes, 212, 214, 273

turbid water, 420

two-electron transfers, 298

U

ubiquitinylation, 214

ultraviolet (UV)

effects, 609

index, 543

light, 225

photoreceptors, 666

radiation

aerosols, 603

biological damage, 547

biological effectiveness, 612

cataract, 552

clouds, 600

distribution, 595

effects on plants, 637

eye damage, 552

genetic damage, 637

geographical distribution, 599

health effects, 533, 543

inhibition of photosynthesis, 640

instrument measuring, 597

molecular scattering, 601

ozone, 602

photoconjunctivitis, 552

photokeratitis, 552

protection, 642

screening compounds, 666

skin treatments, 551

surface albedo, 604

ultrastructural cell damage, 638

variability, 595

vegetation, 624

wavelength regions, 597

signature mutations

oncogenes, 548

tumor suppressor genes, 548

urbanization, 538

urocanic acid (UCA), 550

V

Vibrio, 443, 462, 472
viruses, seafood-associated, 473–474

visible radiation

circadian effects, 552

damage of the retina, 553

health effects, 552

spectrum, 602

vitamin D

deficiency, 668

in Pets, 649

metabolism, 534

receptor (VDR), 537

W

wastewater

for irrigation, 393

reuse

guidelines, 394

in agriculture, 394

virus concentration, 393

water

intoxication, 567

pathogenic microorganisms, 363

quality

microbial pollution, 405

pathogen contamination, 405

testing, 389

reuse, QMRA, 391

safety plans, 365

supply

risk characterization, 373

risk management, 366

treatment, 369, 384

waterborne

disease, 363, 372, 405

microorganisms, 633

pathogens, 371

Water Reuse, 391

water–air boundary, 626

weight loss, 582

Wilms tumor, 252, 279

winter depression, 554

wood/woody plants, 645

X

xanthine oxidase system, 306

xenobiotic

acylation, 707

biotransformation, 699, 704

carcinogenic, 204

cellular detoxification, 715

electrophile, 703

glucuronidation, 704

glutathione conjugation, 707

hydrolysis reactions, 703

mercapturic acid formation, 707

metabolism, 168, 698

methylation, 705

736 Index

Page 732

protection, 689

reduction reactions, 703

resistance, 692

solute carrier proteins, 713

storage, 714

sulfation, 705

toxic effects, 11

uptake, 693

X-ray irradiation, 490

Z

zoo animal, UV exposure,

668

zoonotic

bacteria, 426

pathogens indicators,

513–514

zooplanktivorous fish, 323

zooplankton, 323, 660

Index 737

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