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Page 1

Tenaya Press
Palo Alto, CA

English Grammar:
Step by Step Written by Elizabeth WealIllustrated by Amy Zhang

1

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ii English Grammar: Step by Step 1

For my students

©2010 Elizabeth Weal

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or translated in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or by any information storage retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publisher.

All inquiries should be addressed to
Elizabeth Weal
Tenaya Press
3481 Janice Way
Palo Alto, CA 94303

650-494-3941
[email protected]
http://TenayaPress.Tenaya.com

Book design: Stuart Silberman
Cover: Beth Zonderman
Layout: Renée Cook

About the cover

�e cover is a photograph of a portion of a mola. Molas are part of the traditional dress of the Central
American Cuna (or Kuna) tribe of the San Blas Islands, a chain of tropical islands along the Atlantic coast of
Panama. Molas, which also can be found in Colombia, are hand made using a “reverse appliqué” technique.
Several layers of di�erent-colored cloth are sewn together; the design is then formed by cutting parts of each
layer away.

ISBN 978-0-9796128-7-9

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I (yo) he (él) she (ella) you (tú, usted,
ustedes)

we (nosotros,
nosotras)

they (ellos,
ellas)

8 English Grammar: Step by Step 1

1.4 Subject Pronouns

You have learned that the subject of a sentence is the word or words that tell who or
what the sentence is about. Read this sentence:

▶ Jorge es de Nicaragua.
The subject of the sentence is Jorge.

A pronoun is a word that you can use to replace a noun. A personal pronoun is a
pronoun that takes the place of a noun that is the subject. For example, instead of
saying

▶ Jorge es de Nicaragua.
you can replace Jorge with the pronoun él. The new sentence is

▶ Él es de Nicaragua.
Similarly, instead of saying

▶ Los niños están en el parque.
you might say

▶ Ellos están en el parque.
The following are subject pronouns in English and Spanish.*

*The pronoun it cannot be easily translated into Spanish. You’ll learn about it in the next chapter.

English vs. Spanish: In English, the pronoun you is used for tú, usted and ustedes.
That means that you’ll use the same pronoun whether you’re talking to a child or the
President of the United States! You’ll also use you when you are talking to one person
and when you are talking to a group of people. Consider these examples:

English vs. Spanish: In English the pronoun they means both ellos and ellas. In
other words, they is used to refer to a group of males, a group of females, or a group
of males and females that you’re not part of. Similarly, the pronoun we means both
nosotros and nosotras, so it can be used to refer to you and one or more males or
females.

English Spanish
You are from Peru. Tú eres de Perú.

You are from Peru. Usted es de Perú.

You are from Peru. Ustedes son de Perú.

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Your tu
rn!

English Grammar: Step by Step 1 9

1.4.a Directions: Translate these subject pronouns from English to Spanish. The first one is done for you.
1. they ellos ellas 4. we

2. he 5. you

3. I 6. she

1.4.b Directions: Use the clue to fill in the correct English pronoun. The first one is done for you.

1. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de un hombre. he

2. Usas este pronombre persoal para hablar de una mujer.

3. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de ti mismo.

4. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de un grupo de hombres, un grupo de
mujeres o un grupo de hombres y mujeres del cual no eres parte.



5. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de ti y una o más personas.

6. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de la persona con la que estás
conversando.



1.4.c Directions: Translate these subject pronouns from Spanish to English. The first one is done for you.

1. ella she 6. usted

2. tú 7. yo

3. él 8. ustedes

4. ella 9. nosotros

5. ellas 10. ellos

1.4.d Directions: Write the subject pronoun–he, she or they–that you can substitute for each noun. The
first two are done for you.
Noun Pronoun Noun Pronoun
1. Emma she 9. the sister

2. Mario he 10. the sisters

3. Nina and Marco 11. the brother

4. Fred, Tom, and Dan 12. the brothers

5. the girl 13. the students

6. the girls 14. Anna

7. the boys 15. Eduardo

8. Lucas 16. Sharon and Frank

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English Grammar: Step by Step 1 21

P1.h Directions: Rewrite the sentence by replacing the underlined words with a pronoun (he, she or
they). The first one is done for you.
1. The girls are from New York. They are from New York.

2. The girl is from Panama.

3. My brothers are from Brazil.

4. My father is from Argentina.

5. The teachers are from Santiago.

6. Miguel and Carlos are from Las Vegas.

7. Martin is from the United States.

8. My mother is from Mexico City.

P1.i Directions: Translate these sentences into English.
1. Ella es de Nicaragua. She is from Nicaragua.

2. Nosotros somos de San Diego.

3. Las niñas son de Chicago.

4. La maestra es de Guadalajara.

5. Ellos son de Cancún.

6. Los estudiantes son de Bogotá.

7. Yo soy de San Francisco.

8. Los maestros son de Havana.

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22 English Grammar: Step by Step 1

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