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TitleEnglish Grammar Book
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Total Pages144
Document Text Contents
Page 2

The verb ‘to be’ and contractions

The verb ‘to have’ Present Simple

The negative form – verb ‘to be’, Present


Tags- short answers – verb ‘to be’, Present


The Present Simple vs. Present Continuous

The Present Continuous

The Affirmative Imperative

The Negative Imperative

Verbs without a continuous form

Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions

‘Always’ + Present Continuous

Construction and use of the Preterit* (Past


Regular and Irregular Verbs

The Present Perfect

Differences between Present Perfect and

...Preterit* (Past Simple)

The Present Perfect Continuous

‘For’ /‘Since’ / ‘Ago’

'Ever' / 'Never'

Expressions with the Present Perfect

The Preterit Continuous* (Past


Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous

‘Used To’

The Near Future be + -ing* (Present

...Continuous for Future)

The Future – ‘Will’

Future Continuous – ‘Will be doing’

The Future – ‘Will’ + ‘To be going to’

Future Perfect – ‘Will have done’

The Future with ‘be’ + Infinitive

Table of

Page 72

I want both books.
Both shirts are good.

Before a noun with a determiner (the, this, I want both (of) those books.
my, your, those etc.) ‘both’ and ‘both Both (of) the books.
of’ are possible.

(me, you, him, her, it, us, them) Both of them are my sisters.
Use ‘both of’ before the pronoun. She has invited both of us.
‘Both’ can be put after object pronouns. She has invited us both.

Both goes after auxiliaries and before We have both gone to the beach.
other verbs. We both want to go.

Page 73



8Relative Clauses and Dependent Clauses
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
Relative pronouns are used in relative clauses. A ‘clause’ is part of a sentence. A
‘relative clause’ tells us which person or thing the speaker means.

The woman who lives next door is a doctor.
relative clause

A relative clause joins two sentences:

I met a woman. She speaks two languages.
she who

I met a woman who speaks two languages.

WHO people
I know a lot of people who live in London.

THAT things or people
The man that lives next door is very friendly.
Barbara works for a company that makes computers.

WHICH things
Emma lives in a house which

WHOSE possession (instead of his/her/their etc.)
A widow is a woman whose husband is dead.

WHERE a place
That is the hotel where Tom got married.

WHOM people (but when it is the object of the verb
in the relative clause)
The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday.
( I wanted to see her)

Page 143


‘I am told’

The present sometimes stands in for the present perfect, as in:

Structure Examples
‘I am told’ (= I understand ) I am told that you are in charge of the
Instead of ‘I’ve been told’ sales department.

‘I forget’ (= I can’t remember) What time is the match tonight?
Instead of ‘I’ve forgotten’ I forget.

‘I hear’
Instead of ‘I’ve heard’ I hear you have been promoted.

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