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Table of Contents
                            Little Round Top Cultural Landscape Report, Treatment & Management Plan
	Table of Contents
	1. Introduction
		Purpose of the Project
		Scope of Work
		Locaon, Context & Se ng
		Context & Access
		Methodology
		Summary of Findings
		Suggesons for Further Research
	2. Site History
		Historic Narra ve Summary
		Pre-Colonial Human History & Environment
		The Second Day’s Bale for Lile Round Top
		The Ge ysburg Bale-field Memorial Associa on & the Early Commemorave Era, 1864-1894
		The Ge ysburg Naonal Park Commission/U.S. War Department Commemorave Era, 1895-1933
		Early Naonal Park Service Improvements, 1933-ca.1950
		Naonal Park Service Management & Mission 66 Period, ca. 1951-Present
		Period of Signifi cance
		Periods of Landscape Development
	3. Existing Conditions & Character Area Analysis
		Circulaon
			Whea ield Road GETT #RD11, IDLCS 005674
			Crawford Avenue GETT #RD317, IDLCS 080960
			Warren Avenue GETT #RD316, IDLCS 080983
			Sykes Avenue GETT #RD362, IDLCS 080996
			Wright Avenue GETT #RD319, IDLCS 080987
		Furnishings & Signage
		Monuments
			01B Posion of Company B, 20th Maine Volunteers, Capt. Walter G. Morrill
			02C 20th Maine
			03C 9th Pennsylvania Reserves (38th Infantry) th
			04C 83rd Pennsylvania Infantry rd
			05C 2nd Massachuse s Infantry
			06C 22nd Massachuse s Infantry
			07C 18th Massachuse s Infantry
			08A 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Corps (Vincent’s Brigade)
			09B Strong Vincent Marker
			10C 16th Michigan Infantry
			11C Michigan Sharpshooters
			12C 44th and 12th New York Infantry
			13C 140th New York Infantry
			14A Baery D, 5th U.S. Arllery
			15B Weed and Hazle Inscribed Boulder
			16C 91st Pennsylvania Infantry
			17B Major General G.K. Warren Statue
			18C United States Signal Corps
			19A 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th Corps (Weed’s Brigade)
			20C 146th New York Infantry
			21C 155th Pennsylvania Infantry
			22C Baery L, 1st Ohio
			23C 98th Pennsylvania Infantry
			24C 121st New York Infantry
			25A 5th Corps
			26A Arllery Brigade, 5th Corps (Mar n’s Brigade)
			27C 147th Pennsylvania Infantry
			28L 5th Maine Infantry, LeFlank
			29A 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Corps (Bartle ’s Brigade)
			30C 95th Pennsylvania Infantry
			31C 96th Pennsylvania Infantry
			32C 3rd Massachuse s Baery
			33C 139th Pennsylvania Infantry
			34A 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Corps (Nevin’s Brigade)
			35C Brigadier General Samuel W. Crawford
			36A 3rd Division, 5th Corps (Crawford’s Division)
			37L 6th New Jersey (Le Flank Marker)
			38C 40th New York Infantry Monument
		Structures
		Topography, Drainage & Geomorphology
		Vegetaon
		Views & Visual Relaonships
		Character Areas
		1. Open Vehicular Corridor
		2. Forest Lined Roadways
		3. Vincent Spur
		4. Warren Avenue Monuments
		5. 16th Michigan
		6. North Slope Monuments
		7. Core Interpre ve Area
		8. Dense Forest
		9. Rocky Slope
		10. Plum Run Riparian Corridor
	4. Evaluation of Historic Integrity
		Period of Significance and Landscape Classificaon
		Understanding the OAKOC System
		Landscape Descripons by Ba le Par cipants
			Observaon and Fields of Fire
			Avenues of Approach
			Key and Decisive Terrain
			Obstacles
			Cover and Concealment
		Contribung Features by Character Area
		Open Vehicular Corridor
		Forest Lined Roadways
		Vincent Spur
		Bale Era Extant Features
		Warren Avenue Monuments
		16th Michigan
		North Slope Monuments
		Core Interpre ve Area
		Dense Forest
		Rocky Slope
		Plum Run Riparian Corridor
	5. Treatment & Management Approach
		Treatment Philosophy
			Preservaon
			Rehabilitaon
			Restoraon
			Reconstrucon
		Management Approach
			Management Goals
	6. Treatment Options
		Overview
		Elements Common to All Opons
			Circulaon
			Furnishings & Signage
			Monuments
			Structures
			Breastworks
			Topography, Drainage & Geomorphology
			Vegetaon
		How Many is Too Many?
		Circulaon and Gathering Opons
			Circulaon and Gathering Op on A
			Circulaon and Gathering Op on B
			Circulaon and Gathering Op on C
			Circulaon and Gathering Op on D
			Circulaon and Gathering Opons: Pros and Cons
				Circulaon and Gathering Opon A Summary
				Circulaon and Gathering Opon B Summary
				Circulaon and Gathering Opon C Summary
				Circulaon and Gathering Opon D Summary
	7. Recommended Treatment Plan
		Treatment Plan Selecon
		Recommendaons
			Vehicular Circulaon and Parking
			Pedestrian Circulaon at the Summit and Core Area
			Pedestrian Circulaon to Addional Sites within the Study Area
			Gathering Area Confi guraons
	Gettysburg National Military Park Little Round Top Treatment Recommendations Matrix
		Circulation (Vehicular)
		Circulation (Pedestrian)
		Furnishings & Signage
		Monuments
		Structures
		Stone Breastworks
		Topography, Drainage & Geomorphology
		Vegetation
		Views & Visual Relationships
	Appendix HR-A: Bibliography
		Published Sources
		Unpublished Sources and Manuscripts
		List of Key Items from Historian’s Files Scanned for Use with the Landscape Study
		Maps and Drawings
		Photographic Collecons
	Appendix HR-B: Graphics Index
	Appendix HR-B: Key Graphics Index
	Appendix HR-D: Traf c Report
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Cultural Landscape Report, Treatment & Management Plan

Gettysburg National Military Park

Little Round Top
Cultural Landscape Report, Treatment & Management Plan

FINAL
March 2nd , 2012
Na onal Park Service
U.S. Department of the Interior Contract Number D456101001
Ge ysburg, Pennsylvania PMIS Number 75729

Page 89

Prominent Rock Outcrops: The large, weathered boulders
that cover the landscape of the project area are exposed
por ons of the Ge ysburg Sill (Figure 3.86).

Plum Run: The flat, low-lying stream corridor of Plum Run at
the base of Li le Round Top collects all of the stormwater
runoff from the western half of the project area as it flows
south into Rock Creek, a tributary of the Potomac River.
Addi onal flow comes from the fields north of Whea ield
Road, flooding the valley during periods of heavy rain (Figure
3.87).

Stone Culverts: Two types of stone culvert convey stormwater
beneath the site’s roadways: the square-top culverts were
constructed during the War Department Era, while the
arched-top culverts were part of the Civilian Conserva on
Corps’ efforts during the early por on of the NPS Era (Figures
3.88 and 3.39).

Grass Swale: Two- to three-foot wide mown grass swales
line the east and west sides of Crawford Avenue and the
north and south ends of Sykes Avenue, where stormwater is
captured and allowed to infiltrate back into the water table
(Figure 3.90).

Figure 3.87. View of the Plum Run stream corridor, with the summit of
Little Round Top in the background (Photo by RHI, 2011).

Figure 3.90. Grass swale lining Crawford Avenue (Photo by RHI, 2011).

Figure 3.88. War Department Era square-topped stone culvert (Photo by
RHI, 2011).

Figure 3.91. Asphalt gutter on the west side of Sykes Avenue (Photo by
RHI, 2011).

Figure 3.89. NPS Era round-topped stone culvert, constructed by the
Civilian Conservation Corps (Photo by RHI, 2011).

Figure 3.92. Rip-rap lined drainage channel along Wheatfield Road (Photo
by RHI, 2010).

3-36 | Existing Conditions Gettysburg National Military Park

Page 90

Asphalt Gu ers: 12- to 18-inch wide asphalt channels were
constructed by the Na onal Park Service along por ons of
Wright and Sykes avenues as a means of protec ng areas of
the site that are suscep ble to erosion (Figure 3.91). Before the
NPS Era, gu ers were constructed of hand-laid cobbles, whose
rough texture was effec ve in slowing runoff and preven ng
washouts.

Rip-Rap Lined Drainage Channel: In order to handle the
heavy, fast-moving stormwater that runs off of Li le Round
Top’s north slope, a three foot wide channel of 8- to 12-inch
stones was placed by NPS along the south side of Whea ield
Road (Figure 3.92). This channel slows the flow of water
into Plum Run, reducing erosion and silta on that can occur
during big storms.

Roadway Erosion: Despite all of the NPS Era efforts to control
stormwater runoff on and around Li le Round Top, periods
of heavy rain and snow s ll cause significant erosion to the
landscape. A er a par cularly wet winter season in 2010-
2011, the road base underneath the northern edge of
Warren Avenue completely washed out, causing a por on of
the roadway to fail (Figure 3.93). The Na onal Park Service
con nues to explore solu ons to prevent further degrada on
to the landscape caused by heavy erosion.

Figure 3.93. Undercutting of the roadbed along the north side of Warren
Avenue has caused a partial failure of the roadway (Photo by RHI, 2011).

Today, the landscape of Little Round
Top is maintained to appear much as it
did in July of 1863.

Vegeta on

From the old field plant species that cover the western slope
to the mature hardwood tree canopy that covers the eastern
slope, Li le Round Top contains examples of nearly every
phase of ecological succession (see Figure 3.133 Vegeta on
Map). The range of soils from the riparian corridor of Plum
Run to the rocky silt loams of the summit of Li le Round
Top supports this variety within the plant communi es that
populate the project area.

Like most of the Ge ysburg Na onal Military Park, the
vegeta on of Li le Round Top is rela vely young. Even the
mature forest along the eastern por on of the site contains
few trees over 150 years old, due to the logging prac ces
that occurred there by private owners prior to the Ba le of
Ge ysburg and later by both the War Department and the
Na onal Park Service. Today, the landscape of Li le Round
Top is maintained to appear much as it did in July of 1863,
perpetua ng the cleared woodlot that covers the western
slope, while allowing the forest of the eastern slope to
mature.

Mown Grass Road Edge: A narrow strip of mown grass
adjacent to the road edges of Crawford Avenue, Whea ield
Road, the north side of Warren Avenue and por ons of
Sykes Avenue allows park visitors to easily reach the many
monuments that are just off the edges of the roads (Figure
3.94). These grass edges generally denote the limits of the
War Department avenue commemora ve corridors and are
maintained as park-defined “Class A” areas, adhering to the
highest level of groundskeeping standards within Ge ysburg
Na onal Military Park.

Old Field: The western face of Li le Round Top is managed to
appear much as it did in July of 1863, having been cleared of
many trees and brush some me before the ba le.16 Although
the appearance of the western slope is similar, the species
that populate it today indicate a slightly more mature old
field than what would have existed in 1863: smooth sumac
(Rhus glabra) and eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana)
are commonly found mixed in with the grasses, perennials
and annuals indica ve of an old field. In addi on to these
na ve species, several species of invasive, exo c vegeta on
can be found on the western slope of Li le Round Top.

16. Glenn W. LaFantasie. Twilight at Little Round Top. New York:
Vintage Books, 2005. p.1.

Little Round Top Cultural Landscape Report Existing Conditions | 3-37

Page 177

Appendix HR-B: Key Graphics Index
Under separate cover

Gettysburg National Military Park

Page 178

Appendix HR-D: Traf c Report
Under separate cover

Little Round Top Cultural Landscape Report

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