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UNIVERSITI MALAYA

ORIGINAL LITERARY WORK DECLARATION

Name of Candidate:���/�(�2�1�*���.�$�+���+�2�1���������������� ��������������������������������(I.C/Passport No:�������������� ������������������ )

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Title of Project Paper/Research Report/Dissertation/Thesis (“this Work”): �'�(�9�(�/�2�3�0�(�1�7���2�)��

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Field of Study:

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Work and its authorship have been acknowledged in this Work;

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Malaya (“UM”), who henceforth shall be owner of the copyright in this Work and that any
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Figure 4.14: FESEM images of the (a) low magnification, (b-c) high magnification

of 0.5wt% Pd/TiO2. The inset of (c) is the EDX of 0.5wt% Pd/TiO2 and (d-f)

HRTEM images of 0.5wt% Pd/TiO2

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Figure 4.15 shows the X-ray diffraction patterns of anatase TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 with

different Pd loading (0.5wt%, 1.0wt% and 3.0wt %). Pure anatase TiO2 is observed in all

samples indicating that its crystallinity and the phase is not distorted by the solar assisted

photodeposition. The diffraction patterns of the prepared anatase TiO2 well correlated

with the standard peaks (JCPDS no. 21-1272). The presence of Pd NPs are signified by a

e assigned to (1 1 1) and (2 0

0) crystal plane of face centered cubic (FCC) Pd (JCPDS no 46-1043) respectively. From

the diffraction patterns only two peaks instead of three that designates Pd was observed.

This was due to the peak overlap with the anatase TiO2

to be two peaks. Thus these three diffraction peaks further signifies the metallic state of

the loaded Pd NPs. The peaks also confirm the stability of the synthesized palladium

crystals that has a notable contribution to promising visible light performance (Chan,

Chang, Hsu, Wang, & Lin, 2009). Overall, the prepared samples showed higher

crystallinity that is ascertained by the sharp peaks. The average crystalline sizes of anatase

TiO2 and Pd particles were calculated using well know Scherrer equation. The crystalline

size of the Pd particles was found to be 21.22 nm, 22.41 nm and 28.10 nm for 0.5wt%

Pd/TiO2, 1.0wt% Pd/TiO2 and 3.0wt% Pd/TiO2 respectively. No significant changes in

crystalline size of anatase TiO2 (19.75 nm) was observed after depositing Pd (19.57 nm).

This very well clarified that Pd was deposited onto the TiO2 surface and not incorporated

into the TiO2 lattice.

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LIST OF PUBLICATIONS AND PAPERS PRESENTED



Papers Published

1. Leong, K. H., Liu, S. L., Sim, L.C., Saravanan, P., Jang, M., & Ibrahim, S. (2015).

Surface reconstruction of titania with g-C3N4 and Ag for promoting efficient electrons

migration and enhanced visible light photocatalysis. – DOI:

10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.06.184.

2. Leong, K. H., Sim, L. C., Bahnemann, D., Jang, M., Ibrahim, S., & Saravanan, P.

(2015). Reduced graphene oxide and Ag wrapped TiO2 photocatalyst for enhanced

visible light photocatalysis. 3, 104503.

3. Leong, K. H., Chu, H. Y., Ibrahim, S., & Saravanan, P. (2015). Palladium nanoparticles

anchored to anatase TiO2 for enhanced surface plasmon resonance-stimulated, visible-

light-driven photocatalytic activity. , 6, 428-437.

4. Leong, K. H., Gan, B. L., Ibrahim, S., & Saravanan, P. (2014). Synthesis of surface

plasmon resonance (SPR) triggered Ag/TiO2 photocatalyst for degradation of

endocrine disturbing compounds. , 128-135.

5. Leong, K. H., Monash, P., Ibrahim, S., & Saravanan, P. (2014). Solar photocatalytic

activity of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals synthesized by non-hydrolitic sol-gel method.

, 321-332.

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Conference Presentations

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