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TitleDeveloping and Measuring Training the Six Sigma Way: A Business Approach to Training and Development
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Table of Contents
                            DEVELOPING AND MEASURING TRAINING THE SIX SIGMA WAY: A Business Approach to Training and Development
	CONTENTS
	FIGURES, TABLES, AND EXHIBITS
	FOREWORD
	PREFACE
	ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
	INTRODUCTION
	PART I: THE BACKGROUND
		CHAPTER 1: WHY ISD HAS DIFFICULTY ADDRESSING BUSINESS ISSUES
			What Is ISD?
			History of ISD
			ISD Models
			Summary
		CHAPTER 2: WHAT IS SIX SIGMA?
			Six Sigma Defined
			The History of Six Sigma
			Six Sigma in the Training World
			Important Six Sigma Concepts
			Six Sigma Models
			The Six Sigma Organization
			Shortcomings of Six Sigma
			Summary
		CHAPTER 3: REASONS FOR A SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY
			True Return on Investment
			When ISD Is Used as a Development Methodology
			The Solution
			Benefits of a Six Sigma Approach
			Determining Which Six Sigma Model to Use
			Summary
	PART II: DMADDI
		CHAPTER 4: A DMADDI OVERVIEW
			The DMADDI Model
			Evaluation in DMADDI
			Project Organizational Structure
			Summary
		CHAPTER 5: DEFINE
			Why a Separate Phase for Business Analysis?
			Define Step 1: Form a Business Review Team
			Define Step 2: Develop and Validate the Project Charter
			Define Step 3: Complete the Define Tollgate
			DMADDI Tools for Define
			Summary
		CHAPTER 6: MEASURE
			The Honeymoon Is Over
			DMADDI Road Map
			Measure Step 1: Identifying Business Requirements
			Measure Step 2: Prioritizing Business Requirements
			Measure Step 3: Translating Business Requirements into Measurable Targets
			It’s All in the Translation
			Measure Step 4: Complete the Measure Tollgate
			Measure Step 5: Transfer Requirements to the Development Team
			DMADDI Tools for Measure
			Summary
		CHAPTER 7: ANALYZE
			DMADDI Road Map
			Analyze Step 1: Assembling a Design Team
			Analyze Step 2: Identifying What Needs to Be Learned
			Analyze Step 3: Validating and Prioritizing What Needs to Be Learned
			Analyze Step 4: Complete the Analyze Tollgate
			DMADDI Tools for Analyze
			Summary
		CHAPTER 8: DESIGN
			DMADDI Road Map
			Design in ISD
			Design in DMADDI
			Design Step 1: Identify the Learning Platform
			Design Step 2: Convert Objectives into Learning Activities
			Design Step 3: Create a Communication Tool
			Design Step 4: Identify Development Resources
			Design Step 5: Complete the Design Tollgate
			DMADDI Tools for Design
			Summary
		CHAPTER 9: DEVELOP
			DMADDI Road Map
			Develop Step 1: Identifying the Factors
			Develop Step 2: Developing Controls
			Develop Step 3: Validating the Outputs of the Develop Phase
			Develop Step 4: Complete the Develop Tollgate
			DMADDI Tools for Develop
			Summary
		CHAPTER 10: IMPLEMENT
			DMADDI Road Map
			Implement in ISD
			Implement in DMADDI
			A Brief Recap
			What Happens in the Implement Phase
			Implement Step 1: Revisit the Project Requirements
			Implement Step 2: Validate the Perspective of the Stakeholders
			Implement Step 3: Gather and Analyze Project Data
			Implement Step 4: Develop a Reporting Action Plan
			Implement Step 5: Prepare Presentation and Update Storyboard
			Implement Step 6: Complete the Implement Tollgate
			Implement Step 7: Celebrate
			A Final Word
			DMADDI Tools for Implement
			Summary
		CHAPTER 11: IF NOT US, WHO? IF NOT NOW, WHEN?
	PART III: A DMAIC CASE STUDY
		CHAPTER 12: E-LEARNING THE SIX SIGMA WAY
			The Background
			The Organizational Structure
			What’s Important? The Define Phase
			How Are We Doing? The Measure Phase
			What’s Wrong? The Analyze Phase
			What Do We Need to Do? The Improve Phase
			How Do We Guarantee Performance? The Control Phase
			A Final Thought
	REFERENCES
	INDEX
	ABOUT THE AUTHOR
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

DEVELOPING AND
MEASURING TRAINING
THE SIX SIGMA WAY

A Business Approach to
Training and Development

Kaliym A. Islam

Foreword by Edward A. Trolley

Y

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trying to solve, thus reducing the creative thinking. The team must also be care-
ful not to create too many steps between the random word as a stimulus and the
creation of a relevant idea.

Wishful Thinking Technique. The wishful thinking technique is useful for com-
ing up with new ideas. Team members dream of their ideal situation or solution.
In this case, team members call out the business requirement that they wish the
training would meet. This technique can be effective because the team often
comes up with something that is already known but is now presented in a more
practical and realistic way. It can also be useful because when the team has some-
thing to aim for, it can be practical in considering how far it wants to go to meet
that requirement. Some wishful questions that team members might ask them-
selves while generating solutions might be:

• What would my perfect solution be?
• What effect would my ideal solution have?
• What if money (or morals or laws) did not matter at all?
• What would I do if I had unlimited power and resources?
• What would my ideal solution look like?

Once the team has identified their perfect solutions, they look at how realistic
and how practical the solutions would be in practice.

Random Picture Technique. This method is similar to the random word tech-
nique. Instead of using a word as a stimulus, it uses a picture. Some people find
it easier to use pictures rather than words, and others vice versa. The team leader
should experiment to see which works better for the team. The first requirement
for this technique is a random picture that is used as a prompt to come up with
new ideas and solutions. The team can select pictures at random from a maga-
zine, encyclopedia, or picture book.

Team members look at the picture, extract a concept or idea from it, and use
the idea to stimulate a possible solution to the problem. They should try to see
anything in the picture that reminds them of the problem and how it might be
solved. What activities are going on? What situations are being faced? Why are
the people doing what they are doing? What principles are being used?

With the picture in front of them, team members extract ideas from it or
imagine a similar theme, person, or action happening within their own situation
or from their perspective. Next they think of how they can use that new situation,
object, or attitude in their own situation.

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As was the case with the random word technique, the team must be careful
in deciding that a specific picture is of no use and choosing another. They should
also be careful of linking the picture with an idea that they already know about.
Team members must train their minds not to do this. They must take the picture
at face value and not use the technique to come up with an old idea to show that
the old idea is good.

Affinity Diagram Technique. The affinity diagram, or KJ method (named after
its author, Kawakita Jiro), has become one of the most widely used Six Sigma
brainstorming, management, and planning tools. The affinity diagram was de-
veloped to discover meaningful groups of ideas within a raw list. In doing so, it is
important to let the groupings emerge naturally rather than according to preor-
dained categories.

Typically an affinity diagram is used to refine a brainstorm into something
that makes sense and can be dealt with more easily. Some experts recommend
using the affinity diagram when the facts or thoughts are uncertain and need to
be organized, when preexisting ideas or paradigms need to be overcome, when
ideas need to be clarified, and when unity within a team needs to be created.

Steps in Constructing an Affinity Diagram

1. State the issue or problem to be explored. Start with a clear statement of the
problem or goal, and provide a time limit for the session; usually forty-five to
sixty minutes is sufficient.

2. Brainstorm ideas for the issue or problem. Each participant should think of
ideas and write them individually on index cards or sticky notes, or have a
recorder write them on a flip chart.

3. Collect the cards or sticky notes, mix them up, and spread them out (or stick
them) on a flat surface, such as a desk or wall. Index cards can be secured to a
wall with a putty-type adhesive.

4. Arrange the cards or sticky notes into related groups. For approximately fif-
teen minutes, allow participants to pick out cards that list related ideas and set
them aside until all cards are grouped.

5. Create a title or heading for each grouping that best describes the theme of
each group of cards (Figure 6.4).

One great benefit of using the affinity diagram as a brainstorming tool is that it
not only helps the team to get the issues on the table but also to categorize the
issues.

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MODEL A graphic depiction of a system or process and the relationship among its elements.
Models provide a frame of reference and something more tangible, and more easily remembered,
than a verbal explanation. They also give participants something to “go on,” enabling them to
track their own progress as they experience the dynamics, processes, and relationships being
depicted in the model.

ROLE PLAY A technique in which people assume a role in a situation/scenario: a customer
service rep in an angry-customer exchange, for example. The way in which the role is approached
is then discussed and feedback is offered. The role play is often repeated using a different
approach and/or incorporating changes made based on feedback received. In other words, role
playing is a spontaneous interaction involving realistic behavior under artificial (and safe)
conditions.

SIMULATION A methodology for understanding the interrelationships among components
of a system or process. Simulations differ from games in that they test or use a model that
depicts or mirrors some aspect of reality in form, if not necessarily in content. Learning occurs
by studying the effects of change on one or more factors of the model. Simulations are com-
monly used to test hypotheses about what happens in a system—often referred to as “what if?”
analysis—or to examine best-case/worst-case scenarios.

THEORY A presentation of an idea from a conjectural perspective. Theories are useful because
they encourage us to examine behavior and phenomena through a different lens.

TOPICS
The twin goals of providing effective and practical solutions for workforce training and orga-
nization development and meeting the educational needs of training and human resource
professionals shape Pfeiffer’s publishing program. Core topics include the following:

Leadership & Management

Communication & Presentation

Coaching & Mentoring

Training & Development

e-Learning

Teams & Collaboration

OD & Strategic Planning

Human Resources

Consulting

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What will you find on pfeiffer.com?

• The best in workplace performance solutions for training and HR professionals

• Downloadable training tools, exercises, and content

• Web-exclusive offers

• Training tips, articles, and news

• Seamless online ordering

• Author guidelines, information on becoming a Pfeiffer Affiliate, and much more

Discover more at www.pfeiffer.com

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