Download Cradle to Grave Lifecycle Analysis of US Light Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways PDF

TitleCradle to Grave Lifecycle Analysis of US Light Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways
LanguageEnglish
File Size9.0 MB
Total Pages210
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Figures
Tables
Notation
	Acronyms and Initialisms
	Units of Measure
Acknowledgments
Executive Summary
1 Introduction
	1.1 Climate and Policy Context
	1.2 Previous LCA and C2G Work
	1.3 Overview of the Present C2G Study
	1.4 Report Organization
	1.5 References for Section 1
2 Overview of Methodology
	2.1 Study Scope, Definitions and Major Assumptions
	2.2 Approach of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Use LCA
	2.3 Vehicle Modeling Approach
	2.4 Fuel Modeling Approach
	2.5 References for Section 2
3 Vehicle-Fuel Pathway Selection and Vehicle Technologies
	3.1 Vehicle-Fuel Pathways
	3.2 Description of Selected Vehicle Technologies
	3.3 Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs)
	3.4 References for Section 3
4 Fuel Pathways: GHG Assumptions and Data Sources
	4.1 Petroleum Pathways
		4.1.1 Crude Production
		4.1.2 GHG Emissions in Oil Fields
		4.1.3 Crude Refining
	4.2 Natural Gas Pathway
	4.3 Biofuels Pathways
		4.3.1 Corn Ethanol
		4.3.2 Corn Stover Ethanol
		4.3.3 Soybeans to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester and Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel
		4.3.4 Land Use Change from Biofuel Production
		4.3.5 Pyrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass
	4.4 Hydrogen Pathways
		4.4.1 Steam Methane Reforming of Natural Gas
		4.4.2 Water Electrolysis
		4.4.3 Biomass Gasification
		4.4.4 Hydrogen Delivery (Transmission, Distribution, and Refueling)
	4.5 Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Pathways
	4.6 Electricity Pathways
	4.7 Changes to Default Estimates from GREET 2014
	4.8 References for Section 4
5 Fuel Pathways:  Cost Assumptions and Data Sources
	5.1 Approach, Assumptions, and Summary of Fuel Costs
	5.2 Transportation Fuel Price Estimates from AEO 2015
	5.3 Pyrolysis Fuels
	5.4 Future Technology Diesel Fuels (HRD, FAME, GTL/FTD)
		5.4.1 Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel (HRD) Pathway
		5.4.2 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Pathway
		5.4.3 Gas-To-Liquid Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (GTL FTD) Pathway
	5.5 Ethanol (E85) from Corn Stover
	5.6 Electricity
	5.7 Hydrogen Fuel
	5.8 References for Section 5
6 Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Cost Assumptions
	6.1 Autonomie Summary
	6.2 Vehicle Components Sizing
	6.3 Fuel Economy and Electricity Consumption
	6.4 Vehicle Weight and Composition
		6.4.1 Advanced Battery Cost Assumptions
	6.5 Vehicle Cost
	6.6 References for Section 6
7 Vehicle Production Pathways
	7.1 System Boundary for Vehicle Production Pathways
	7.2 Material Composition for Each Component
	7.3 Key Material for Vehicle Production Pathways
		7.3.1 Steel Production Pathways
		7.3.2 Cast Iron Production Pathway
		7.3.3 Aluminum Production Pathway
		7.3.4 Plastic and CFRP Production Pathways
		7.3.5 Li-ion Battery Production Pathways
		7.3.6 Other Key Materials Production Pathways
	7.4 Vehicle Assembly, Disposal, and Recycling
	7.5 References for Section 7
8 Cradle-to-Grave GHG Results and Sensitivity
	8.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
	8.2 Total Energy
	8.3 References for Section 8
9 Levelized Cost of Driving Analysis
	9.1 LCD Analysis Framework
	9.2 LCD Results
	9.3 LCD Sensitivity Results
	9.4 Oil Price Sensitivity
	9.5 References for Section 9
10 Cost of Avoided GHG Emissions
	10.1 Analysis Framework
	10.2 Cost of Avoided GHG Emissions:  Current Technology Case
	10.3 Cost of Avoided GHG Emissions:  Future Technology Case
	10.4 Sensitivity Analysis Cases
	10.5 References for Section 10
11 Limitations and Future Implications
12 Conclusions
	Appendix A: Description of Fuel Production Pathways:  Key Stages and Parameters
		A.1 Petroleum Pathways: Gasoline, Diesel, and LPG
		A.2 Corn-Based Ethanol
		A.3 Bio-Based Gasoline and Diesel
		A.4 GTL Fischer-Tropsch Diesel
		A.5 Soy-Derived FAME and HRD
		A.6 Cellulosic Ethanol
		A.7 CNG
		A.8 U.S. Average Grid Electricity
		A.9 Hydrogen Pathways
	Appendix B: Price and Efficiency Comparison of Modeled and Real-World Vehicles
	Appendix C: GHG Emissions for Different Vehicle-Fuel Pathways
	Appendix D: Sensitivity of GHG Emission Projections to Key Vehicle-Fuel Parameters
	Appendix E: LCD Calculation Details and Examples
	Appendix F: Comparison between Fuel Price Projections
	Appendix G: Compilation of All References Used in this Report
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 105

79

Table 45. Process assumptions for cast iron production.

Fuel Unit Iron Recyclinga Iron Castinga Iron Forgingb Machiningb
Diesel MMBtu/ton 1.25 – – –
NG MMBtu/ton – – 32.6 –
Electricity MMBtu/ton 0.09 – 1.18 0.54
Coke ton/ton – 0.84 – –

a Sources: Burnham et al. (2006); Cuenca (2005).
b Source: Sullivan et al. (2010).



Figure 17. Wrought and cast aluminum production steps

CO2, CH4, and N2O: the 100-year global warming potential is 6,630 for CF4 and 11,100 for C2F6. The
liquid aluminum is cooled to form ingots for subsequent automotive parts production.

Recycled aluminum production involves scrap preparation, melting, and ingot casting. Aluminum scrap is
melted in large, NG-fired reverberatory furnaces and poured into ingot molds. Alloy compatibility is a
major concern for producing quality automotive parts from recycled materials. Thus, for large-scale
recycling of aluminum automotive parts, the cast and wrought materials are typically separated so that the
chemistry of the recycled parts is predictable and desirable. Thus, GREET uses different assumptions for
wrought and cast aluminum scrap preparation.

Table 46 lists the input fuel and material and non-combustion emissions associated with aluminum
production pathways, which are similar to those of steel production. Keoleian et al. (2012) processed the
2010 lifecycle assessment report by PE Americas prepared for the Aluminum Association, a U.S.-based

Page 106

80

Table 46. Process assumptions for aluminum production (per ton finished aluminum product)

Input Unit

Virgin Aluminum Recycled Aluminum
Wrought Al uminum

Production
Cast Aluminum

Production

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Fuel
Residual oil MMBtu 0.05 6.76 0.08 – – – – 0.59 – – – – – –
Diesel MMBtu 0.22 0.05 0.02 – 0.12 0.39 1.35 0.01 – – – 0.02 – –
Gasoline MMBtu – – – – – – – – – 0.06 – – – –
NG MMBtu – 6.79 0.89 – 1.04 – – 1.63 1.05 0.78 4.31 3.21 7.57 –
Coal MMBtu – 2.63 0.04 – 0.07 – – – – – – 0.22 – –
LPG MMBtu – – – – – – – 0.01 – – – 0.09 – –
Electricity MMBtu 0.03 0.75 0.18 48.13 0.22 0.24 0.10 0.65 0.82 1.08 1.15 0.29 – 0.54

Material
NaOH ton – 0.172 – – – – – – – – – – – –
Lime ton – 0.076 – – – – – – – – – – – –
Coke ton – – 0.438 – – – – – – – – – – –
Steel sheet ton – – 0.002 0.008 – – – – – – – – – –
Intermediate
aluminum ton – – – – – 1.060 1.000 1.043 1.011 1.007 1.380 1.003 1.107 1.000

Non-combustion emissions
CF4 g – – – 62.42 – – – – – – – – – –
C2F6 g – – – 7.45 – – – – – – – – – –
CO2 ton – – 0.122 0.122 – – – – – – – – – –

a Source: Keoleian et al. (2012).
b Source: Burnham et al. (2006).
c Source: Sullivan et al. (2010).

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