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TitleControl and characterization of nano-structures with the symmetries of light
File Size10.6 MB
Total Pages258
Table of Contents
List of Publications
Statement of contribution
List of Abbreviations
1 Introduction
2 Theoretical methods in nano-optics
	2.1 Maxwell Equations
	2.2 Fields, operators and symmetry groups
	2.3 Basis of solutions of free-source Maxwell equations
		2.3.1 Plane waves
		2.3.2 Bessel beams
	2.4 Multipolar fields
	2.5 Scattering control
	2.6 Aplanatic lens model
		2.6.1  preservation
		2.6.2 Jz preservation
	2.7 Overview
3 Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Symmetry considerations
	3.3 The scattering problem
	3.4 Cross sections
	3.5 Efficiency factors
4 Excitation of single multipolar resonances
	4.1 GLMT with cylindrically symmetric beams
	4.2 Paraxial excitation
	4.3 Non-paraxial excitation
	4.4 Excitation of Whispering Gallery Modes
5 Control of the helicity content in scattering
	5.1 GLMT problem in helicity basis
	5.2 Kerker conditions
	5.3 Helicity control in scattering
	5.4 Angular momentum-induced helicity transfer
	5.5 Possible experimental implementations
6 Experimental Techniques
	6.1 Holography principles
		6.1.1 Intensity modulation holograms
	6.2 Computer Generated Holograms
		6.2.1 Phase singularities
		6.2.2 Fabrication of phase-only CGH
		6.2.3 Characterization
	6.3 Spatial Light Modulators
		6.3.1 SLM characterization
		6.3.2 CGHs or SLMs? Pros and cons
	6.4 Fabrication of samples
		6.4.1 Nano-apertures on metallic films
		6.4.2 Single spheres on a substrate
7 Experiments with single nano-apertures
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Symmetries
		7.2.1 Duality symmetry
	7.3 Circular Dichroism
	7.4 Angular momentum preservation
8 Experiments with single spherical particles
	8.1 Scope
	8.2 Experimental set-up
	8.3 Measuring methods
	8.4 Wavelength scans
	8.5 Characterization of crossed helicity modes
9 Conclusions
A Rotation of electromagnetic fields
B Holography
	B.1 Fabrication of phase-only CGH
	B.2 Characterization of CGHs
	B.3 Holograms - separation of diffraction orders
	B.4 SLM characterization
C Proof of IlL/R=I-lR/L
D Intensity plots of multipolar fields
List of Symbols
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Control and characterization of

nano-structures with the

symmetries of light


Xavier Zambrana-Puyalto

Thesis accepted by Macquarie University

for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Department of Physics & Astronomy

July 2014

mailto:[email protected]

Page 2


c© Xavier Zambrana-Puyalto, 2014.

Typeset in LATEX 2" .

mailto:[email protected]

Page 129


6.3 Spatial Light Modulators 107

Figure 6.8: a) CCD image of the reference beam when the SLM works as a mirror. b)
Typical diffraction pattern created by the SLM when the efficiency is over 80%. The 0th
order is at the same position as the reference beam, whereas the 1st order has been tilted.
The colour bar indicates goes from 0 to 1, where 1 is taken as the absolute intensity maximum
of the reference beam.

6.3.2 CGHs or SLMs? Pros and cons

Due to their flexibility and interactive control, SLMs have taken over the role that

CGHs used to play in the field of optical micro-manipulation, and in particular in the

field of the AM of light. However, CGHs made of photographic films can still be useful

for some applications. Thus, to conclude with this study of different methods to create

phase-only holograms, the pros and cons of using each of the two methods will be


• Price. Making CGH in the way described in section 6.2 is cheap. All the

equipment and materials needed are easily available. On average, making 60

holograms (which corresponds to two photographic films) costs less than $100.

In contrast, the cheapest SLM in the market (from Cambridge Correlators6) is

valued $1000. And then, the rest of them are in the range of $15000-$25000.

• Efficiency. The CGH made and characterized in this thesis reached efficiencies

Page 130

108 Experimental Techniques

Figure 6.9: CCD image of a typical diffraction pattern created by a CGH and a SLM. It
is seen that the SLM sends most of the light to the first diffraction order, whereas the light
coming out of the CGH is split between many diffraction orders.

values of 45%. However, it is known that the efficiency can reach values of the

order of 60%. The main reason why those values were not reached is because the

chemical process is not optimised and some silver has remained in the sample,

thus producing some absorption. In contrast, the efficiencies measured with the

SLM from BNS are constantly above 80%. In order to visualize the difference

of efficiency, Figure 6.9 displays the diffraction pattern from a CGH and the one

from an SLM. It is seen that with the SLM, almost all the light goes into the 1st

diffraction order, whilst with the CGH the 0th and 2nd order are also clearly seen.

The cheap SLMs from Cambridge Correlators do not have such high efficiencies,

though. Theirs is usually below 60%.

• Polarization. Polarization does not play any role for CGHs. That is, the

transmittance t(x, y) given by the hologram is completely independent of the

polarization of the incoming beam. However, for SLMs, the polarization of the

incident beam is crucial. Nematic liquid crystals form an anisotropic medium,

therefore a change of polarization alters their response dramatically. In order to

Page 257

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